Studies of relationships between orthographic knowledge (OK), rapid automatised naming (RAN) and reading have yielded mixed results due to inconsistency in measures used, the definition of OK and group characteristics. We comprehensively examined OK (MGR; mental graphemic representations and GOK; generic orthographic knowledge, accuracy/efficiency); alpha/non-alphanumeric RAN (ANRAN/NANRAN) and word reading (accuracy/efficiency) with control for nonverbal reasoning and phonological awareness. In 169 Grade 6 children, ANRAN uniquely influenced MGR (accuracy/efficiency), with NANRAN influencing only GOK efficiency. ANRAN/NANRAN influenced word reading efficiency directly/indirectly through MGR efficiency. We observed similar direct/indirect effects on word reading accuracy from ANRAN and MGR accuracy but only indirect influence from NANRAN through MGR accuracy. Further analyses indicated that RAN and OK relate reciprocally when influencing word reading. Our inference that both RAN and OK types, especially ANRAN and MGR, influence word reading by interactively and differentially accessing the same neural substrata as reading, should inform future research and intervention.