The effect of pod number on the seed yield and components of seed yield was examined for narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) grown at a plant density of 36 plants/m2 in both the glasshouse and the field. Different numbers of pods per plant in the glasshouse-grown lupin were generated by the application of N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) to a specific number of flowers to ensure artificially that they set pods, and the subsequent removal of the remaining untreated flowers. Pod number ranged from 6 to 65 pods/plant in the glasshouse and was naturally distributed from 2 to 22 pods/plant in the field. Increases in seed yield per plant occurred as pod number per plant increased from 2 to 30 pods. No further increases in seed yield resulted when pod number per plant increased from 30 to 55 pods. Seed yield per plant was depressed as pod number increased from 55 to 65 pods. Seed size fell as pod number per plant increased over 20 pods and was less affected once the number of seeds per pod was reduced. The reduction in seed number per pod resulted from an increase in the number of seeds that aborted during seed filling. The data suggest that at a plant density of 36 plants/m2 there is potential for improving seed yield per plant by increasing the number of pods that reach maturity, provided it does not exceed 30 pods/plant. However, if consideration is given to producing large seeds, often preferred by buyers, the number of pods per plant should not exceed 20 pods.