東亞女性與婚姻有關的移民,1500-1650

Translated title of the contribution: Women's marriage-related migration across East Asia, 1500-1650

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Abstract

Women’s marriage migration may not be a modern phenomenon, but the contours of such experiences in times past are generally much more difficult to capture in previous centuries. Nonetheless, evidence exists to indicate that women have long moved around the Asian region, motivated by a range of marriage politics that are historically specific. This essay explores the nature of such female marriage-related migrations in the early modern period, and the kinds of sources that enable discovery of these women’s specific life courses and experiences. Through case studies of three individual women, a Japanese-born woman in the Dutch East India Company settlement at Batavia, a Korean-born woman in Tokugawa Japan, and a woman from the Indian sub-continent living in the Spanish-controlled Philippines, it investigates three forms of participation in these human circulations in the region. It brings to bear analysis from the disparate range of historical sources, both textual and material, in order to reflect on their experiences of agency, their survival and support strategies and mechanisms for identity construction, as well as their opportunities for integration within their host communities. This essay, therefore, provides a deeper historical context in which to situate current marriage migrations and test the novelty or longevity of its modern forms.

正如本文所述,歷史學家可用來評估移民女性與各種婚姻政治相關經歷的文件有限。儘管如此,它仍然得以讓我們分析這些女性的能動性、生存和支持策略以及身分建構的機會,並思考她們如何融入新的社群。在確定新目的地的婚姻、移民和生活方面,這些女性彼此有著非常不同的能動性。有時候,這些史料來源揭示了相當意外和令人驚訝的能動性,就像奴隸女郎瑪麗亞的情況一般。同樣地,在極為不同的情況下,我們仍然可以看到移民女性的策略行為模式──旨在支持她們在新地方的移居生活。這些都與貿易和生產等經濟活動有關。證據表明,在該地區的政治興起,女性們肯定不是經濟上的被動主體。事實上,她們足 智多謀、靈活而有才華。紀錄顯示,以日本的Hyakubasen 和巴達維亞的瑪麗亞為例,這些移民婦女通常會找到自己的方式來建立自己的身分機制,為自己和子女保持與原有家庭的聯繫,並在其所屬社群建立新的社會責任和網絡,使她們能在事業和婚姻方面取得成功,並同時實踐她們的語言與文化。這些形式的身分建構也可被解釋為生存策略的情感形式,而這對於她們在充滿挑戰環境中的福祉和適應力至關重要。最後,我們發現一些可能被作為融入當地社區的措施,特別是透過經濟勞動。但若從文化角度來看,這些女性及其家庭往往被當地人和當局緊緊地掌握著。事實上,正是這項研究中的最脆弱女性得以與天主教殖民精英份子(儘管有些是奴隸)融為一體,藉由這個過程,她們獲得了該群體的文化和法律保護。顯然,這些與婚姻有關的女性遷徙之彼此動能和現代背景各有極大的不同。但從某種意義上說,女性在當時和現在都面臨著類似的挑戰,並在各自的歷史背景下展示了重要的能動性、策略思想和身分建構。

Original languageChinese
Title of host publication亞洲女性婚姻移民
EditorsSu-Lin Yu
Place of PublicationTaiwan
Chapter1
Pages3-24
Publication statusPublished - May 2019

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  • Cite this

    Broomhall, S. (2019). 東亞女性與婚姻有關的移民,1500-1650. In S-L. Yu (Ed.), 亞洲女性婚姻移民 : Mobility and Agency (pp. 3-24).