According to the findings obtained in the context of a Global Initiative on Neurology and Public Health carried out by the World Health Organization (WHO), there has been a lack of reliable and comparative data on services and other resources for neurological disorders in many parts of the world. In view of these findings and in collaboration with the World Federation of Neurology (WFN), WHO has recently organized an international Survey of Country Resources for Neurological Disorders, which involved 109 countries and covered over 90% of the world's population. This large WHO/WFN collaborative endeavour collected expert information on a number of aspects of neurological care provision around the world including availability of neurological services in primary care; human resources for neurological disorders; sub-specialized neurological services; primary method of financing of neurological care; and disability benefits for patients with neurological disorders. The WHO/WFN Survey results clearly demonstrate that there are inadequate resources for patients with neurological disorders in most parts of the world, and highlight inequalities in the access to neurological care across different populations, and in particular in those living in low-income countries and in developing regions of the world. The key findings of the WHO/WFN Survey including their impact on delivery of neurological care around the world are presented and discussed in this paper. The entire set of WHO/WFN Survey results including numerous tables, graphs and accompanying commentaries can be found in the WHO/WFN Atlas of Country Resources for Neurological Disorders, which is available on request from WHO or at http://www.who.int/mental health/neurology/. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.