Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), a tropical grain legume with low input requirements, is expected to continue to have an important role in supplying food and nutritional security in developing countries in Asia, Africa and the tropical Americas. From wholegenome resequencing of 292 Cajanus accessions encompassing breeding lines, landraces and wild species, we characterize genome-wide variation. On the basis of a scan for selective sweeps, we find several genomic regions that were likely targets of domestication and breeding. Using genome-wide association analysis, we identify associations between several candidate genes and agronomically important traits. Candidate genes for these traits in pigeonpea have sequence similarity to genes functionally characterized in other plants for flowering time control, seed development and pod dehiscence. Our findings will allow acceleration of genetic gains for key traits to improve yield and sustainability in pigeonpea.