When Voice Matters: A Multilevel Review of the Impact of Voice in Organizations

M.R. R. Bashshur, Burak Oc

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

151 Citations (Scopus)


© 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.We exploit the bilateral and skill dimensions from recent data sets of international migration to test for the existence of Zipf's and Gibrat's laws in the context of aggregate and high-skilled international immigration and emigration using graphical, parametric and non-parametric analysis. The top tails of the distributions of aggregate and high-skilled immigrants and emigrants adhere to a Pareto distribution with an exponent of unity, that is Zipf's law holds. We find some evidence in favour of Gibrat's law holding for immigration stocks, such that the growth in stocks is independent of their initial values and stronger evidence that immigration densities are diverging over time. Conversely, emigrant stocks are converging in the sense that countries with smaller emigrant stocks are growing faster than their larger sovereign counterparts. Lastly, high-skilled immigration and emigration stocks expressed in levels or as densities all exhibit signs of convergence. We conclude by discussing some competing mechanisms that could be driving the observed patterns including differing fertility rates, reductions in emigration restrictions, migrant sorting and selective immigration policies, immigrant networks and persisting wage differentials.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1530–1554
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of Management
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes


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