It is time to drop the glyoxysome name. Recent functional genomics analysis together with cell biology studies emphasize the unifying features of peroxisomes rather than their differences. Plant peroxisomes contain 300 or more proteins, the functions of which are dominated by activities related to fatty acid oxidation (>70 enzymes). By comparison, relatively few proteins are committed to metabolism of reactive oxygen species (similar to 20) and to photorespiration (similar to 10). Analysis of triglyceride metabolism in Arabidopsis seedlings now indicates that only two enzymes (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase) potentially distinguish glyoxysomes from other peroxisomes. Future research is best served by focusing on the common features of peroxisomes to establish how these dynamic organelles contribute to energy metabolism, development and responses to environmental challenges.