A high quality reference genome sequence is a prerequisite resource for accessing any gene, driving genomics-based approaches to systems biology, and for efficient exploitation of natural and induced genetic diversity of an organism. Wheat and barley possess genomes of a size that was long presumed to be not amenable for whole genome sequencing. So far, only limited genomic sequencing of selected loci has been performed, providing preliminary information about the organization of the Triticeae genomes. Driven by breakthrough technology improvements, whole genome sequencing of Triticeae genomes is poised to become a realistic undertaking. This chapter provides all overview of the history of plant genome sequencing, summarizes the status of Triticeae genome sequencing efforts, describes next generation sequencing technologies, and offers an outlook oil the future of wheat and barley genome sequencing based on these technologies.