Concepts of ‘human values’ and ‘wellbeing’ are central in environmental planning, especially during the group deliberations that underpin expert and participatory processes. However, there are long-standing, unresolved controversies concerning both concepts with many debates being highly theoretical. Therefore, we suggest it is more productive to develop definitions and models that are task-specific (mid-level theory). To this end, we use purpose-built value sets and models to explain the relationships among values and wellbeing, and to demarcate values, desires, and personality. The derived concepts are designed for group deliberations and could readily be combined with existing decision support tools, such as structured decision making. Outputs from the work also inform current debates within the environmental domain including, for example, those surrounding the intrinsic value of nature, and ideas concerning plural values versus a single overarching value (monism). We also define ‘wellbeing’ as an evaluative statement that supports assessments of trade-offs and co-benefits.