Weekend surgery may be associated with a higher risk of early complications, but the effect of the timing of kidney transplant surgery on early allograft outcome remains uncertain. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the association between weekend transplant surgery and allograft failure was modified by prevalent vascular disease. Using data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant registry, we examined the association between weekend status and 90-day and 1-year allograft failure in deceased donor transplant recipients between 1994-2012. Two-way interaction between vascular disease and weekend status was examined. Of 6622 recipients, 1868 (28.2%) received transplants during weekends. Compared with weekday transplants, weekend transplants were associated with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for 90-day and 1-year allograft failure of 0.99 (0.78-1.25; P = 0.917) and 0.93 (0.76-1.13, P = 0.468), respectively. There was a significant interaction between prevalent vascular disease and weekend status for 90-day allograft failure (P-interaction = 0.008) but not at 1-year, such that patients with vascular disease were more likely to experience 90-day allograft failure if transplanted on weekend (versus weekdays), particularly failures secondary to vascular complications. Timing of transplantation does not impact on allograft outcome, although those with vascular disease may benefit from more intensive post-transplant follow-up for potential vascular complications.