Water conservation potential in educational institutions in developing countries: case study of a university campus in Ghana

S. Oduro-Kwarteng, K.B. Nyarko, S.N. Odai, Patrick Aboagye-Sarfo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper presents evidence of the potential for institutional water conservation in a developing country using a university campus in Kumasi, Ghana, as a case study and suggests measures for reducing water demand in institutions. A water end-use survey was conducted using a sample of 144 students from six halls of residence to determine lavatory faucet (tap), showerhead and water closet water-use. The average per capita water use was 115.12 +/- 5.33 litres per day at 95% confidence level. Results of the water end-use analysis showed that students use high quantities of water for bathing (61.90 +/- 4.06 litres per capita per day at 95% confidence level). There is a potential for reducing the annual water demand by 30.85% through water conservation measures such as retrofitting with water-efficient showerheads and water closets. The payback period for the cost of retrofitting in the current study was found to be 6.5 years.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)449-455
JournalUrban Water Journal
Volume6
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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