Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in the Danish Diet Cancer and Health Study

Jamie W Bellinge, Frederik Dalgaard, Kevin Murray, Emma Connolly, Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Catherine P Bondonno, Joshua R Lewis, Marc Sim, Kevin D Croft, Gunnar Gislason, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, Jonathan M Hodgson, Carl Schultz, Nicola P Bondonno

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17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Dietary vitamin K (K1 and K2) may reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk via several mechanisms. However, studies linking vitamin K intake with incident ASCVD are limited. We aimed to determine the relationship between dietary vitamin K intake and ASCVD hospitalizations. Methods and Results In this prospective cohort study, participants from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study, with no prior ASCVD, completed a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and were followed up for hospital admissions of ASCVD; ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, or peripheral artery disease. Intakes of vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 were estimated from the food-frequency questionnaire, and their relationship with ASCVD hospitalizations was determined using Cox proportional hazards models. Among 53 372 Danish citizens with a median (interquartile range) age of 56 (52-60) years, 8726 individuals were hospitalized for any ASCVD during 21 (17-22) years of follow-up. Compared with participants with the lowest vitamin K1 intakes, participants with the highest intakes had a 21% lower risk of an ASCVD-related hospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI: 0.74-0.84), after multivariable adjustments for relevant demographic covariates. Likewise for vitamin K2, the risk of an ASCVD-related hospitalization for participants with the highest intakes was 14% lower than participants with the lowest vitamin K2 intake (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.81-0.91). Conclusions Risk of ASCVD was inversely associated with diets high in vitamin K1 or K2. The similar inverse associations with both vitamin K1 and K2, despite very different dietary sources, highlight the potential importance of vitamin K for ASCVD prevention.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere020551
Pages (from-to)e020551
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Volume10
Issue number16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Aug 2021

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