Ovarian fragments were exposed to 0.5 M sucrose and 1 M ethylene glycol (freezing solution; FS) with or without selenium or Trolox. Histological and ultrastructural analyses showed that the percentages of normal follicles in control tissue and in tissue after exposure to FS + 50 μM Trolox were similar. Trolox prevented endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related vacuolization, which is commonly observed in oocytes and stromal tissue after exposure to FS. From the evaluated stress markers, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) was up-regulated in ovarian tissue exposed to FS + 10 ng/ml selenium. Ovarian fragments were subsequently frozen-thawed in the presence of FS with or without 50 μM Trolox, followed by in vitro culture (IVC). Antioxidant capacity in ovarian fragments decreased after freeze-thawing in Trolox-free FS compared with FS + 50 μM Trolox. Although freezing itself minimized the percentage of viable follicles in each solution, Trolox supplementation resulted in higher rates of viable follicles (67 %), even after IVC (61 %). Furthermore, stress markers SOD1 and ERp29 were up-regulated in ovarian tissue frozen-thawed in Trolox-free medium. Relative mRNA expression of growth factors markers was evaluated after freeze-thawing followed by IVC. BMP4, BMP5, CTGF, GDF9 and KL were down-regulated independently of the presence of Trolox in FS but down-regulation was less pronounced in the presence of Trolox. Thus, medium supplementation with 50 μM Trolox prevents ER stress and, consequently, protects ovarian tissue from ER-derived cytoplasmic vacuolization. ERp29 but not ERp60, appears to be a key marker linking stress caused by freezing-thawing and cell vacuolization. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Brito, D. C., Brito, A. B., Scalercio, S. R. R. A., Percário, S., Miranda, M. S., Rocha, R. M., Diniz, J. A. P., Oskam, I. C., Van Den Hurk, R., Paris, M., Domingues, S. F. S., & Santos, R. R. D. (2014). Vitamin E-analog Trolox prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress in frozen-thawed ovarian tissue of capuchin monkey (Sapajus apella). Cell and Tissue Research, 355(2), 471-480. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-013-1764-x