The prevalence of and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency were examined for recent adult immigrants from East Africa living in Melbourne. Demographic data were collected via a face-to-face questionnaire and risk factors predicting deficiency were examined. Suboptimal levels <25 nmol/L were found in 61 patients (53%; 74% of women; 20% of men). Lower levels were more likely in: (i) patients with a longer duration of residence in Australia, (ii) patients who were mostly covered when outdoors and (iii) women. Routine assessment for vitamin D deficiency should be considered for male and female immigrants from East Africa.