OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Indonesian children hospitalized with pneumonia and evaluate the association between vitamin D status and severity of pneumonia.
METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2016 to July 2017 in two district hospitals in Yogyakarta province, Indonesia. Infants and young children aged 2-59 months hospitalized with pneumonia were recruited. Serum blood samples were collected on admission and analyzed for total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 concentrations using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a level of serum vitamin D <50 nmol/L. The association between vitamin D deficiency and severity of hospitalized pneumonia according to WHO criteria, including the presence of danger signs, hypoxemia (SpO2 in air below 90%), duration of hospitalization, and admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), was analyzed using logistic regression.
RESULTS: 133 children with WHO-defined pneumonia were enrolled in the study and 127 (96%) had their vitamin D status determined. The mean vitamin D concentration was 67 (± 24 SD) nmol/L and 19% of participants were vitamin D deficient. Age younger than 6 months was associated with prolonged hospitalization (> 5 days) and low birth weight and poor nutritional status on admission were risk factors for hypoxemia. However, vitamin D status was not associated with the presence of danger signs, duration of hospitalization, or hypoxemia.
CONCLUSIONS: One in every five children hospitalized with pneumonia was vitamin D deficient. Vitamin D status was not associated with the severity of pneumonia.