Vitamin D concentration and its association with past, current and future depression in older men: The Health in Men Study

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    Abstract

    Background

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with depression in later life, but it remains unclear whether this association is truly causal.

    Methods

    Observational study examining the retrospective, cross-sectional and prospective associations between vitamin D concentration and depressed mood in a community-derived sample of 3105 older men living in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. We measured the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D using standard procedures. Past depression was ascertained by direct questioning and through the use of administrative health data linkage. A geriatric depression scale score equal or greater 7/15 established the presence of current depression. Incident depression was established by a patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥10 or by administrative health data linkage during the 6-year follow up (range 0.1-10.9 years).

    Results

    Vitamin D concentration <50 nmol/L was associated with greater odds of current (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.13, 2.42) but not past depression (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.83, 1.58). Of the 2740 men with no past or current history of depression, 81 developed clinically significant symptoms during follow up. The adjusted hazard ratio of incident depression for men with plasma vitamin D <50 nmol/L was 1.03 (95% CI = 0.59, 1.79; adjusted for age, living arrangements, season, and prevalent cardiovascular diseases).

    Conclusions

    Our results do not support a role for vitamin D in the causation of depression, although a small antidepressant effect of vitamin D cannot be entirely discarded. Large randomised placebo-controlled trials are required to dismiss or establish with certainty the causal link between vitamin D deficiency and depression.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)36-41
    JournalMaturitas
    Volume81
    Issue number1
    Early online date9 Feb 2015
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - May 2015

    Fingerprint

    Men's Health
    Vitamin D
    Health
    Depression
    Vitamin D Deficiency
    Information Storage and Retrieval
    Geriatrics
    Plasmas
    Antidepressive Agents
    Western Australia
    Hazards
    Causality
    Observational Studies
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Randomized Controlled Trials
    Placebos

    Cite this

    @article{5897fa3061d64c1b9becde2ec7d4266e,
    title = "Vitamin D concentration and its association with past, current and future depression in older men: The Health in Men Study",
    abstract = "Background Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with depression in later life, but it remains unclear whether this association is truly causal. Methods Observational study examining the retrospective, cross-sectional and prospective associations between vitamin D concentration and depressed mood in a community-derived sample of 3105 older men living in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. We measured the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D using standard procedures. Past depression was ascertained by direct questioning and through the use of administrative health data linkage. A geriatric depression scale score equal or greater 7/15 established the presence of current depression. Incident depression was established by a patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥10 or by administrative health data linkage during the 6-year follow up (range 0.1-10.9 years). Results Vitamin D concentration <50 nmol/L was associated with greater odds of current (OR = 1.65, 95{\%} CI = 1.13, 2.42) but not past depression (OR = 1.15, 95{\%} CI = 0.83, 1.58). Of the 2740 men with no past or current history of depression, 81 developed clinically significant symptoms during follow up. The adjusted hazard ratio of incident depression for men with plasma vitamin D <50 nmol/L was 1.03 (95{\%} CI = 0.59, 1.79; adjusted for age, living arrangements, season, and prevalent cardiovascular diseases).ConclusionsOur results do not support a role for vitamin D in the causation of depression, although a small antidepressant effect of vitamin D cannot be entirely discarded. Large randomised placebo-controlled trials are required to dismiss or establish with certainty the causal link between vitamin D deficiency and depression.",
    author = "Osvaldo Almeida and Hankey, {Graeme J.} and Bu Yeap and J. Golledge and Leon Flicker",
    year = "2015",
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    doi = "10.1016/j.maturitas.2015.01.016",
    language = "English",
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    T1 - Vitamin D concentration and its association with past, current and future depression in older men: The Health in Men Study

    AU - Almeida, Osvaldo

    AU - Hankey, Graeme J.

    AU - Yeap, Bu

    AU - Golledge, J.

    AU - Flicker, Leon

    PY - 2015/5

    Y1 - 2015/5

    N2 - Background Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with depression in later life, but it remains unclear whether this association is truly causal. Methods Observational study examining the retrospective, cross-sectional and prospective associations between vitamin D concentration and depressed mood in a community-derived sample of 3105 older men living in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. We measured the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D using standard procedures. Past depression was ascertained by direct questioning and through the use of administrative health data linkage. A geriatric depression scale score equal or greater 7/15 established the presence of current depression. Incident depression was established by a patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥10 or by administrative health data linkage during the 6-year follow up (range 0.1-10.9 years). Results Vitamin D concentration <50 nmol/L was associated with greater odds of current (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.13, 2.42) but not past depression (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.83, 1.58). Of the 2740 men with no past or current history of depression, 81 developed clinically significant symptoms during follow up. The adjusted hazard ratio of incident depression for men with plasma vitamin D <50 nmol/L was 1.03 (95% CI = 0.59, 1.79; adjusted for age, living arrangements, season, and prevalent cardiovascular diseases).ConclusionsOur results do not support a role for vitamin D in the causation of depression, although a small antidepressant effect of vitamin D cannot be entirely discarded. Large randomised placebo-controlled trials are required to dismiss or establish with certainty the causal link between vitamin D deficiency and depression.

    AB - Background Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with depression in later life, but it remains unclear whether this association is truly causal. Methods Observational study examining the retrospective, cross-sectional and prospective associations between vitamin D concentration and depressed mood in a community-derived sample of 3105 older men living in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. We measured the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D using standard procedures. Past depression was ascertained by direct questioning and through the use of administrative health data linkage. A geriatric depression scale score equal or greater 7/15 established the presence of current depression. Incident depression was established by a patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥10 or by administrative health data linkage during the 6-year follow up (range 0.1-10.9 years). Results Vitamin D concentration <50 nmol/L was associated with greater odds of current (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.13, 2.42) but not past depression (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.83, 1.58). Of the 2740 men with no past or current history of depression, 81 developed clinically significant symptoms during follow up. The adjusted hazard ratio of incident depression for men with plasma vitamin D <50 nmol/L was 1.03 (95% CI = 0.59, 1.79; adjusted for age, living arrangements, season, and prevalent cardiovascular diseases).ConclusionsOur results do not support a role for vitamin D in the causation of depression, although a small antidepressant effect of vitamin D cannot be entirely discarded. Large randomised placebo-controlled trials are required to dismiss or establish with certainty the causal link between vitamin D deficiency and depression.

    U2 - 10.1016/j.maturitas.2015.01.016

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    JO - Maturitas

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    SN - 0378-5122

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