Vitamin D composition of Australian foods

Eleanor Dunlop, Anthony P. James, Judy Cunningham, Norbert Strobel, Robyn M. Lucas, Mairead Kiely, Caryl A. Nowson, Anna Rangan, Paul Adorno, Paul Atyeo, Lucinda J. Black

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Australia needs accurate vitamin D food composition data to support public health initiatives. Previously, limitations in analytical methodology have precluded development of a comprehensive database. We used liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QQQ) to analyse 149 composite samples representing 98 foods (primary samples n = 896) in duplicate for vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), vitamin D2, 25(OH)D2. The greatest concentrations of vitamin D3 were found in canned salmon and a malted chocolate drink powder (fortified); chicken eggs and chicken leg meat contained the most 25(OH)D3. Margarine (fortified) and chocolate contained the greatest concentrations of vitamin D2, with smaller amounts found in various meat products. 25(OH)D2 was detected in various foods, including meats, and was quantitated in lamb liver. These data advance knowledge of dietary vitamin D in Australia and highlight the importance of analysis of these four forms of vitamin D to accurately represent the vitamin D content of food.

Original languageEnglish
Article number129836
JournalFood Chemistry
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2021


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