Vitamin D and its pathway genes in myopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Shu Min Tang, Tiffany Lau, Shi Song Rong, Seyhan Yazar, Li Jia Chen, David A. Mackey, Robyn M. Lucas, Chi Pui Pang, Jason C. Yam

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

7 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association of blood vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D) concentration and vitamin D pathway genes with myopia. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for studies published up to 29 January 2018. Cross-sectional or cohort studies which evaluated the blood 25(OH)D concentration, blood 25(OH)D3 concentration or vitamin D pathway genes, in relation to risk of myopia or refractive errors were included. Standard mean difference (SMD) of blood 25(OH)D concentrations between the myopia and non-myopia groups was calculated. The associations of blood 25(OH)D concentrations and polymorphisms in vitamin D pathway genes with myopia using summary ORs were evaluated. Results: We summarised seven studies involving 25 008 individuals in the meta-analysis. The myopia group had lower 25(OH)D concentration than the non-myopia group (SMD= '0.27 nmol/L, p=0.001). In the full analysis, the risk of myopia was inversely associated with blood 25(OH)D concentration after adjusting for sunlight exposure or time spent outdoors (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.92 per 10 nmol/L, p<0.0001). However, the association was not statistically significant for the <18 years subgroup (AOR=0.91 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.13) and was significant only for 25(OH)D3 (likely to be mainly sunlight derived), but not total 25(OH)D (AOR=0.93 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.00007; AOR=0.91 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.15). We analysed four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the VDR gene from two studies; there was no significant association with myopia. Conclusions: Lower 25(OH)D is associated with increased risk of myopia; the lack of a genetic association suggests that 25(OH)D level may be acting as a proxy for time outdoors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8-17
JournalBritish Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume103
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

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Myopia
Vitamin D
Meta-Analysis
Genes
Odds Ratio
Sunlight
Refractive Errors
Proxy
MEDLINE
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Databases

Cite this

Tang, Shu Min ; Lau, Tiffany ; Rong, Shi Song ; Yazar, Seyhan ; Chen, Li Jia ; Mackey, David A. ; Lucas, Robyn M. ; Pang, Chi Pui ; Yam, Jason C. / Vitamin D and its pathway genes in myopia : Systematic review and meta-analysis. In: British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2019 ; Vol. 103, No. 1. pp. 8-17.
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abstract = "Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association of blood vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D) concentration and vitamin D pathway genes with myopia. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for studies published up to 29 January 2018. Cross-sectional or cohort studies which evaluated the blood 25(OH)D concentration, blood 25(OH)D3 concentration or vitamin D pathway genes, in relation to risk of myopia or refractive errors were included. Standard mean difference (SMD) of blood 25(OH)D concentrations between the myopia and non-myopia groups was calculated. The associations of blood 25(OH)D concentrations and polymorphisms in vitamin D pathway genes with myopia using summary ORs were evaluated. Results: We summarised seven studies involving 25 008 individuals in the meta-analysis. The myopia group had lower 25(OH)D concentration than the non-myopia group (SMD= '0.27 nmol/L, p=0.001). In the full analysis, the risk of myopia was inversely associated with blood 25(OH)D concentration after adjusting for sunlight exposure or time spent outdoors (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.92 per 10 nmol/L, p<0.0001). However, the association was not statistically significant for the <18 years subgroup (AOR=0.91 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.13) and was significant only for 25(OH)D3 (likely to be mainly sunlight derived), but not total 25(OH)D (AOR=0.93 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.00007; AOR=0.91 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.15). We analysed four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the VDR gene from two studies; there was no significant association with myopia. Conclusions: Lower 25(OH)D is associated with increased risk of myopia; the lack of a genetic association suggests that 25(OH)D level may be acting as a proxy for time outdoors.",
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author = "Tang, {Shu Min} and Tiffany Lau and Rong, {Shi Song} and Seyhan Yazar and Chen, {Li Jia} and Mackey, {David A.} and Lucas, {Robyn M.} and Pang, {Chi Pui} and Yam, {Jason C.}",
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Vitamin D and its pathway genes in myopia : Systematic review and meta-analysis. / Tang, Shu Min; Lau, Tiffany; Rong, Shi Song; Yazar, Seyhan; Chen, Li Jia; Mackey, David A.; Lucas, Robyn M.; Pang, Chi Pui; Yam, Jason C.

In: British Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol. 103, No. 1, 01.01.2019, p. 8-17.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Vitamin D and its pathway genes in myopia

T2 - Systematic review and meta-analysis

AU - Tang, Shu Min

AU - Lau, Tiffany

AU - Rong, Shi Song

AU - Yazar, Seyhan

AU - Chen, Li Jia

AU - Mackey, David A.

AU - Lucas, Robyn M.

AU - Pang, Chi Pui

AU - Yam, Jason C.

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association of blood vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D) concentration and vitamin D pathway genes with myopia. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for studies published up to 29 January 2018. Cross-sectional or cohort studies which evaluated the blood 25(OH)D concentration, blood 25(OH)D3 concentration or vitamin D pathway genes, in relation to risk of myopia or refractive errors were included. Standard mean difference (SMD) of blood 25(OH)D concentrations between the myopia and non-myopia groups was calculated. The associations of blood 25(OH)D concentrations and polymorphisms in vitamin D pathway genes with myopia using summary ORs were evaluated. Results: We summarised seven studies involving 25 008 individuals in the meta-analysis. The myopia group had lower 25(OH)D concentration than the non-myopia group (SMD= '0.27 nmol/L, p=0.001). In the full analysis, the risk of myopia was inversely associated with blood 25(OH)D concentration after adjusting for sunlight exposure or time spent outdoors (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.92 per 10 nmol/L, p<0.0001). However, the association was not statistically significant for the <18 years subgroup (AOR=0.91 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.13) and was significant only for 25(OH)D3 (likely to be mainly sunlight derived), but not total 25(OH)D (AOR=0.93 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.00007; AOR=0.91 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.15). We analysed four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the VDR gene from two studies; there was no significant association with myopia. Conclusions: Lower 25(OH)D is associated with increased risk of myopia; the lack of a genetic association suggests that 25(OH)D level may be acting as a proxy for time outdoors.

AB - Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association of blood vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D) concentration and vitamin D pathway genes with myopia. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for studies published up to 29 January 2018. Cross-sectional or cohort studies which evaluated the blood 25(OH)D concentration, blood 25(OH)D3 concentration or vitamin D pathway genes, in relation to risk of myopia or refractive errors were included. Standard mean difference (SMD) of blood 25(OH)D concentrations between the myopia and non-myopia groups was calculated. The associations of blood 25(OH)D concentrations and polymorphisms in vitamin D pathway genes with myopia using summary ORs were evaluated. Results: We summarised seven studies involving 25 008 individuals in the meta-analysis. The myopia group had lower 25(OH)D concentration than the non-myopia group (SMD= '0.27 nmol/L, p=0.001). In the full analysis, the risk of myopia was inversely associated with blood 25(OH)D concentration after adjusting for sunlight exposure or time spent outdoors (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.92 per 10 nmol/L, p<0.0001). However, the association was not statistically significant for the <18 years subgroup (AOR=0.91 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.13) and was significant only for 25(OH)D3 (likely to be mainly sunlight derived), but not total 25(OH)D (AOR=0.93 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.00007; AOR=0.91 per 10 nmol/L, p=0.15). We analysed four single nucleotide polymorphisms in the VDR gene from two studies; there was no significant association with myopia. Conclusions: Lower 25(OH)D is associated with increased risk of myopia; the lack of a genetic association suggests that 25(OH)D level may be acting as a proxy for time outdoors.

KW - genetics

KW - optics and refraction

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U2 - 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2018-312159

DO - 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2018-312159

M3 - Review article

VL - 103

SP - 8

EP - 17

JO - British Journal of Opthalmology

JF - British Journal of Opthalmology

SN - 0007-1161

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