This review summarizes research on virus diseases of cereals and oilseeds in Australia since the 1950s. All viruses known to infect the diverse range of cereal and oilseed crops grown in the continent’s temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical cropping regions are included. Viruses that occur commonly and have potential to cause the greatest seed yield and quality losses are described in detail, focusing on their biology, epidemiology and management. These are: barley yellow dwarf virus, cereal yellow dwarf virus and wheat streak mosaic virus in wheat, barley, oats, triticale and rye; Johnsongrass mosaic virus in sorghum, maize, sweet corn and pearl millet; turnip yellows virus and turnip mosaic virus in canola and Indian mustard; tobacco streak virus in sunflower; and cotton bunchy top virus in cotton. The currently less important viruses covered number nine infecting nine cereal crops and 14 infecting eight oilseed crops (none recorded for rice or linseed). Brief background information on the scope of the Australian cereal and oilseed industries, virus epidemiology and management and yield loss quantification is provided. Major future threats to managing virus diseases effectively include damaging viruses and virus vector species spreading from elsewhere, the increasing spectrum of insecticide resistance in insect and mite vectors, resistance-breaking virus strains, changes in epidemiology, virus and vectors impacts arising from climate instability and extreme weather events, and insufficient industry awareness of virus diseases. The pressing need for more resources to focus on addressing these threats is emphasized and recommendations over future research priorities provided.