© 2016 Elsevier LtdThe vibration of a transformer tank is related to the transformer's noise radiation and health condition. Therefore, it is important to understand the transmission of vibration from internal vibration sources in the windings and core to the transformer tank. The characteristics of this transmission are determined by direct mechanical coupling between the internal structures and the tank, and by indirect coupling through fluid–structure interaction induced by the transformer's cooling oil. In this paper, the transmission of vibration is examined experimentally in a 110-kV power transformer with and without cooling oil. Under respective mechanical and electrical excitations, vibrations of the internal structures and transformer tank are measured simultaneously. The results allow an evaluation of the transmission efficiency of vibration from the internal structures to the tank, and the effects of fluid–structure coupling on the transmission. This experimental work improves understanding of vibration transmission in oil-filled power transformers, and explains the characteristics of a transformer's on-line vibration.