This review discusses the growth and activity of vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi in saline conditions. The review includes examination of the effects of high concentrations of salts on the occurrence of VA mycorrhizal fungi in field soils, and on spore germination, growth of hyphae, establishment of the symbiosis and production of spores in controlled conditions. Information on the growth and reproduction of VA mycorrhizal fungi under saline conditions is scarce and is often circumstantial. There is clear evidence that germination of spores and subsequent hyphal growth of some VA mycorrhizal fungi are reduced by increasing concentration of salts. However, in plant growth experiments, experimental designs and methodologies have generally not allowed the direct effects of salinity on fungal growth to be separated from plant-mediated effects. There is a need for controlled studies to investigate the responses of VA mycorrhizal fungi to soil salinity. Research is required which distinguishes between effects on different phases of the fungus lifecycle and which includes in its design the ability to separate direct effects from plant-mediated influences on fungal growth and reproduction.