Context: Hypercatabolism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) apolipoprotein (apo) A-I results in low plasma apoA-I concentration. The mechanisms regulating apoA-I catabolism may relate to alterations in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism and plasma adiponectin and serum amyloid A protein (SAA) concentrations. Objective: We examined the associations between the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of HDL-apoA-I and VLDL kinetics, plasma adiponectin, and SAA concentrations. Study Design: The kinetics of HDL-apoA-I and VLDL-apoB were measured in 50 obese and 37 nonobese men using stable isotopic techniques. Results: In the obese group, HDL-apoA-I FCR was positively correlated with insulin, homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score, triglycerides, VLDL-apoB, and VLDL-apoB production rate (PR). In the nonobese group, HDL-apoA-I FCR was positively correlated with triglycerides, apoC-III, VLDL-apoB, and VLDL-apoB PR and negatively correlated with plasma adiponectin. Plasma SAA was not associated with HDL-apoA-I FCR in either group. In multiple regression analyses, VLDL-apoB PR and HOMA-IR score, and VLDL-apoB PR and adiponectin were independently predictive of HDL-apoA-I FCR in the obese and nonobese groups, respectively. HDL-apoA-I FCR was positively and strongly associated with HDL-apoA-I PR in both groups. Conclusions: Variation in VLDL-apoB production, and hence plasma triglyceride concentrations, exerts a major effect on the catabolism of HDL-apoA-I. Insulin resistance and adiponectin may also contribute to the variation in HDL-apoA-I catabolism in obese and nonobese subjects, respectively. We also hypothesize that apoA-I PR determines a steady-state, lowered plasma of apoA-I, which may reflect a compensatory response to a primary defect in the catabolism of HDL-apoA-I due to altered VLDL metabolism.