Vegetation of Europe: hierarchical floristic classification system of vascular plant, bryophyte, lichen, and algal communities

Laco Mucina, H. Bültmann, K. Dierßen, J.P. Theurillat, T. Raus, A. Čarni, K. Šumberová, W. Willner, J. Dengler, R.G. García, M. Chytrý, M. Hájek, R. Di Pietro, D. Iakushenko, J. Pallas, F.J.A. Daniëls, E. Bergmeier, A. Santos Guerra, N. Ermakov, M. ValachovičJ.H.J. Schaminée, T. Lysenko, Y.P. Didukh, S. Pignatti, J.S. Rodwell, J. Capelo, H.E. Weber, A. Solomeshch, P. Dimopoulos, C. Aguiar, S.M. Hennekens, L. Tichý, R. Peet

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    1049 Citations (Scopus)


    © 2016 The Authors. Applied Vegetation Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for Vegetation Science.Aims: Vegetation classification consistent with the Braun-Blanquet approach is widely used in Europe for applied vegetation science, conservation planning and land management. During the long history of syntaxonomy, many concepts and names of vegetation units have been proposed, but there has been no single classification system integrating these units. Here we (1) present a comprehensive, hierarchical, syntaxonomic system of alliances, orders and classes of Braun-Blanquet syntaxonomy for vascular plant, bryophyte and lichen, and algal communities of Europe; (2) briefly characterize in ecological and geographic terms accepted syntaxonomic concepts; (3) link available synonyms to these accepted concepts; and (4) provide a list of diagnostic species for all classes. Location: European mainland, Greenland, Arctic archipelagos (including Iceland, Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya), Canary Islands, Madeira, Azores, Caucasus, Cyprus. Methods: We evaluated approximately 10 000 bibliographic sources to create a comprehensive list of previously proposed syntaxonomic units. These units were evaluated by experts for their floristic and ecological distinctness, clarity of geographic distribution and compliance with the nomenclature code. Accepted units were compiled into three systems of classes, orders and alliances (EuroVegChecklist, EVC) for communities dominated by vascular plants (EVC1), bryophytes and lichens (EVC2) and algae (EVC3). Results: EVC1 includes 109 classes, 300 orders and 1108 alliances; EVC2 includes 27 classes, 53 orders and 137 alliances, and EVC3 includes 13 classes, 24 orders and 53 alliances. In total 13 448 taxa were assigned as indicator species to classes of EVC1, 2087 to classes of EVC2 and 368 to classes of EVC3. Accepted syntaxonomic concepts are summarized in a series of appendices, and detailed information on each is accessible through the software tool EuroVegBrowser. Conclusions: This paper features the first comprehensive and critical account of European syntaxa and synthesizes more than 100 yr of classification effort by European phytosociologists. It aims to document and stabilize the concepts and nomenclature of syntaxa for practical uses, such as calibration of habitat classification used by the European Union, standardization of terminology for environmental assessment, management and conservation of nature areas, landscape planning and education. The presented classification systems provide a baseline for future development and revision of European syntaxonomy.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)3-264
    Number of pages262
    JournalApplied Vegetation Science
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2016


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