Vegetable nitrate intakes are associated with reduced self-reported cardiovascular-related complications within a representative sample of middle-aged australian women, prospectively followed up for 15 years

Jacklyn K. Jackson, Amanda J. Patterson, Lesley K. Macdonald-Wicks, Peta M. Forder, Lauren C. Blekkenhorst, Catherine P. Bondonno, Jonathan M. Hodgson, Natalie C. Ward, Carl Holder, Christopher Oldmeadow, Julie E. Byles, Mark A. McEvoy

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Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) facilitates anti-atherosclerotic effects. Vegetables are a major source of dietary nitrate. Experimental data indicates that dietary nitrate can significantly reduce major risk factors for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD), as nitrate can be metabolized to produce NO via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between habitual dietary nitrate intakes and the incidence of self-reported CVD-related complications within a representative sample of middle-aged Australian women (1946–1951 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health). Women free from disease at baseline who had completed the food frequency questionnaire data were included. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) across quartiles for nitrate intakes. Of the 5324 women included for analysis, there were 1951 new cases of CVD-related complications over 15-years of follow-up. Women reporting higher total dietary nitrate intakes (Q4 > 78.2 mg/day) and vegetable nitrate intakes (Q4 > 64.4 mg/day) were 25% and 27% reduced risk of developing CVD-related complications respectively, compared with women reporting low total (Q1 <45.5 mg/day) and vegetable nitrate intakes (Q1 <34.8 mg/day). Our findings were consistent with other observational data indicating that dietary nitrate may explain some of the cardiovascular benefits of vegetable consumption.

Original languageEnglish
Article number240
JournalNutrients
Volume11
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019

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middle-aged adults
Vegetables
Nitrates
vegetables
nitrates
cardiovascular diseases
sampling
Cardiovascular Diseases
nitric oxide
Nitric Oxide
women's health
vegetable consumption
food frequency questionnaires
Women's Health
longitudinal studies
Nitrites
atherosclerosis
odds ratio
nitrites
Longitudinal Studies

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@article{bd2ff035de8e47508199ef86c834265f,
title = "Vegetable nitrate intakes are associated with reduced self-reported cardiovascular-related complications within a representative sample of middle-aged australian women, prospectively followed up for 15 years",
abstract = "Nitric oxide (NO) facilitates anti-atherosclerotic effects. Vegetables are a major source of dietary nitrate. Experimental data indicates that dietary nitrate can significantly reduce major risk factors for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD), as nitrate can be metabolized to produce NO via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between habitual dietary nitrate intakes and the incidence of self-reported CVD-related complications within a representative sample of middle-aged Australian women (1946–1951 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health). Women free from disease at baseline who had completed the food frequency questionnaire data were included. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95{\%} confidence intervals (95{\%} CI) across quartiles for nitrate intakes. Of the 5324 women included for analysis, there were 1951 new cases of CVD-related complications over 15-years of follow-up. Women reporting higher total dietary nitrate intakes (Q4 > 78.2 mg/day) and vegetable nitrate intakes (Q4 > 64.4 mg/day) were 25{\%} and 27{\%} reduced risk of developing CVD-related complications respectively, compared with women reporting low total (Q1 <45.5 mg/day) and vegetable nitrate intakes (Q1 <34.8 mg/day). Our findings were consistent with other observational data indicating that dietary nitrate may explain some of the cardiovascular benefits of vegetable consumption.",
keywords = "Cardiovascular disease, Dietary nitrate, Heart disease, Hypertension, Non-vegetable nitrate, Stroke, Thrombosis, Vegetable nitrate",
author = "Jackson, {Jacklyn K.} and Patterson, {Amanda J.} and Macdonald-Wicks, {Lesley K.} and Forder, {Peta M.} and Blekkenhorst, {Lauren C.} and Bondonno, {Catherine P.} and Hodgson, {Jonathan M.} and Ward, {Natalie C.} and Carl Holder and Christopher Oldmeadow and Byles, {Julie E.} and McEvoy, {Mark A.}",
year = "2019",
month = "2",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3390/nu11020240",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
journal = "Nutrients",
issn = "2072-6643",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "2",

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Vegetable nitrate intakes are associated with reduced self-reported cardiovascular-related complications within a representative sample of middle-aged australian women, prospectively followed up for 15 years. / Jackson, Jacklyn K.; Patterson, Amanda J.; Macdonald-Wicks, Lesley K.; Forder, Peta M.; Blekkenhorst, Lauren C.; Bondonno, Catherine P.; Hodgson, Jonathan M.; Ward, Natalie C.; Holder, Carl; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Byles, Julie E.; McEvoy, Mark A.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 11, No. 2, 240, 01.02.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Vegetable nitrate intakes are associated with reduced self-reported cardiovascular-related complications within a representative sample of middle-aged australian women, prospectively followed up for 15 years

AU - Jackson, Jacklyn K.

AU - Patterson, Amanda J.

AU - Macdonald-Wicks, Lesley K.

AU - Forder, Peta M.

AU - Blekkenhorst, Lauren C.

AU - Bondonno, Catherine P.

AU - Hodgson, Jonathan M.

AU - Ward, Natalie C.

AU - Holder, Carl

AU - Oldmeadow, Christopher

AU - Byles, Julie E.

AU - McEvoy, Mark A.

PY - 2019/2/1

Y1 - 2019/2/1

N2 - Nitric oxide (NO) facilitates anti-atherosclerotic effects. Vegetables are a major source of dietary nitrate. Experimental data indicates that dietary nitrate can significantly reduce major risk factors for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD), as nitrate can be metabolized to produce NO via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between habitual dietary nitrate intakes and the incidence of self-reported CVD-related complications within a representative sample of middle-aged Australian women (1946–1951 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health). Women free from disease at baseline who had completed the food frequency questionnaire data were included. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) across quartiles for nitrate intakes. Of the 5324 women included for analysis, there were 1951 new cases of CVD-related complications over 15-years of follow-up. Women reporting higher total dietary nitrate intakes (Q4 > 78.2 mg/day) and vegetable nitrate intakes (Q4 > 64.4 mg/day) were 25% and 27% reduced risk of developing CVD-related complications respectively, compared with women reporting low total (Q1 <45.5 mg/day) and vegetable nitrate intakes (Q1 <34.8 mg/day). Our findings were consistent with other observational data indicating that dietary nitrate may explain some of the cardiovascular benefits of vegetable consumption.

AB - Nitric oxide (NO) facilitates anti-atherosclerotic effects. Vegetables are a major source of dietary nitrate. Experimental data indicates that dietary nitrate can significantly reduce major risk factors for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD), as nitrate can be metabolized to produce NO via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between habitual dietary nitrate intakes and the incidence of self-reported CVD-related complications within a representative sample of middle-aged Australian women (1946–1951 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health). Women free from disease at baseline who had completed the food frequency questionnaire data were included. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) across quartiles for nitrate intakes. Of the 5324 women included for analysis, there were 1951 new cases of CVD-related complications over 15-years of follow-up. Women reporting higher total dietary nitrate intakes (Q4 > 78.2 mg/day) and vegetable nitrate intakes (Q4 > 64.4 mg/day) were 25% and 27% reduced risk of developing CVD-related complications respectively, compared with women reporting low total (Q1 <45.5 mg/day) and vegetable nitrate intakes (Q1 <34.8 mg/day). Our findings were consistent with other observational data indicating that dietary nitrate may explain some of the cardiovascular benefits of vegetable consumption.

KW - Cardiovascular disease

KW - Dietary nitrate

KW - Heart disease

KW - Hypertension

KW - Non-vegetable nitrate

KW - Stroke

KW - Thrombosis

KW - Vegetable nitrate

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