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This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of different forms of bullying victimization experiences and their association with family functioning, peer relationships and school connectedness among adolescents across 40 lower and middle income to high-income countries (LMIC-HICs). Data were drawn from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) school-based survey of adolescents aged 11–15 years, between 2013 and 2014. We estimated the weighted prevalence by categorising experiences into traditional bullying victimization only, cyberbullying victimization only, and combined traditional and cyberbullying victimization, at country and country income classification. We used multinominal logistic regression models to estimate the adjusted association with the form of bullying victimization by demographic characteristics, family functioning, peer relationships and school connectedness. Overall, 8.0% reported traditional bullying victimization only (8.8% males, 7.4% females), 2.3% of adolescents reported cyberbullying victimization only (2.1% males, 2.2% females), and 1.7% reported combined traditional and cyber bullying victimization (1.7% males, 1.8% females). All three forms of bullying victimization during adolescence were significantly associated with poor family functioning, poor peer relations and poor school connectedness. A consistent finding is that traditional bullying victimization is considerably more common among adolescents across both LMICs and HICs than cyberbullying victimization. This study also demonstrated that a significant proportion of adolescent’s experience victimization in both forms. Positive family functioning, strong peer relationships and greater school connectedness are associated with a lower risk of both forms of bullying victimization.
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