Rationale & Objective: Peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis is a significant PD-related complication. We describe the likelihood of cure after a peritonitis episode, exploring its association with various patient, peritonitis, and treatment characteristics. Study Design: Observational prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants: 1,631 peritonitis episodes (1,190 patients, 126 facilities) in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Japan, Thailand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Exposure: Patient characteristics (demographics, patient history, laboratory values), peritonitis characteristics (organism category, concomitant exit-site infection), dialysis center characteristics (use of icodextrin and low glucose degradation product solutions, policies regarding antibiotic self-administration), and peritonitis treatment characteristics (antibiotic used). Outcome: Cure, defined as absence of death, transfer to hemodialysis (HD), PD catheter removal, relapse, or recurrent peritonitis within 50 days of a peritonitis episode. Analytical Approach: Mixed-effects logistic models. Results: Overall, 65% of episodes resulted in a cure. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for cure were similar across countries (range, 54%-68%), by age, sex, dialysis vintage, and diabetes status. Compared with Gram-positive peritonitis, the odds of cure were lower for Gram-negative (AOR, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.30-0.57]), polymicrobial (AOR, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.20-0.47]), and fungal (AOR, 0.01 [95% CI, 0.00-0.07]) peritonitis. Odds of cure were higher with automated PD versus continuous ambulatory PD (AOR, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.02-1.82]), facility icodextrin use (AOR per 10% greater icodextrin use, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.01-1.12]), empirical aminoglycoside use (AOR, 3.95 [95% CI, 1.23-12.68]), and ciprofloxacin use versus ceftazidime use for Gram-negative peritonitis (AOR, 5.73 [95% CI, 1.07-30.61]). Prior peritonitis episodes (AOR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.74-0.99]) and concomitant exit-site infection (AOR, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.26-0.64]) were associated with a lower odds of cure. Limitations: Sample selection may be biased and generalizability may be limited. Residual confounding and confounding by indication limit inferences. Use of facility-level treatment variables may not capture patient-level treatments. Conclusions: Outcomes after peritonitis vary by patient characteristics, peritonitis characteristics, and modifiable peritonitis treatment practices. Differences in the odds of cure across infecting organisms and antibiotic regimens suggest that organism-specific treatment considerations warrant further investigation.