The genomic matching technique (GMT) targets duplicated polymorphic sequences within genomic blocks in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC), differentiating between individuals at the DNA level using a single primer pair per block. The GMT is currently used to supplement human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing to match donor and recipient pairs for bone marrow transplantation and has the potential to be employed as a powerful exclusion tool in forensic biology. The GMT is highly reproducible, produces DNA profiles from less than 1 ng of DNA and was successfully employed to profile a range of forensic samples including buccal swabs, handled objects and fingerprints. Furthermore, GMT profiles from a single genomic block in the MHC are likely to be more discrimatory than known highly polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) loci such as ACTBP2. As such, the GMT can reduce the cost of investigations that require profiling of multiple suspects or samples from one or more crime scenes and could be extended to profile genomic blocks in other polymorphic genetic systems in the human genome. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.