1. In vivo and in vitro gene manipulated models were used to study the metabolism of chylomicron remnants. Transgenic mice expressing human apolipoprotein (Ape) A1 or E4, gene knockout mice deficient in ApoE or low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors and antisense gene inhibition in HepG2 cells were used to evaluate the effect of gene manipulations on the metabolism of chylomicron remnants.2. Mice transgenic for human ApoE4 showed accelerated clearance of chylomicron-like emulsions when animals were fed a low-fat diet. When challenged by a high-fat diet, remnant clearance in ApoE4 transgenic mice was delayed, as in normal or non-transgenic controls. However, unlike normal nontransgenic controls, in ApoE4 transgenic mice high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels remained high after high-fat feeding, which probably protected the animals from the development of atherosclerosis.(1) In contrast, clearance of chylomicron-like lipid emulsions was not affected by the overexpression of human ApoAI in transgenic mice.3. Gene knock-out mice deficient in ApoE or deficient in the LDL receptor were used to show that ApoE and LDL receptors are both essential for the normal, fast catabolism of chylomicron remnants by the liver.(2) In the absence of the LDL receptor, an alternative ApoE-dependent pathway operates to clear chylomicrons from the plasma, with significantly delayed catabolism.4. Antisense gene inhibition techniques were used to suppress the expression of syndecan, a core protein of heparan sulfate proteoglycan, in HepG2 cells. Remnant uptake in cells transfected with the antisense oligodeoxynucleotide complementary to a 20 nucleotide sequence upstream of the initiation site of syndecan cDNA markedly reduced the uptake of chylomicron remnant.
|Journal||Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology|
|Publication status||Published - 1997|