Unravelling lipoprotein metabolism with stable isotopes: tracing the flow

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Abstract

Dysregulated lipoprotein metabolism is a major cause of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Use of stable isotope tracers and compartmental modelling have provided deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying lipid disorders in patients at high risk of ASCVD, including familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and metabolic syndrome (MetS). In patients with FH, deficiency in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity not only impairs the catabolism of LDL, but also induces hepatic overproduction and decreases catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs). Patients with elevated Lp(a) are characterized by increased hepatic secretion of Lp(a) particles. Atherogenic dyslipidemia in MetS patients relates to a combination of overproduction of very-low density lipoprotein-apolipoprotein (apo) B-100, decreased catabolism of apoB-100-containing particles, and increased catabolism of high-density lipoprotein-apoA-I particles, as well as to impaired clearance of TRLs in the postprandial state. Kinetic studies show that weight loss, fish oils, statins and fibrates have complementary modes of action that correct atherogenic dyslipidemia. Defining the kinetic mechanisms of action of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 and angiopoietin-like 3 inhibitors on lipid and lipoprotein mechanism in dyslipidemic subjects will further our understanding of these therapies in decreasing the development of ASCVD. “Everything changes but change itself. Everything flows and nothing remains the same. You cannot step twice into the same river, for other waters and yet others go flowing ever on.” Heraclitus (c.535- c. 475 BCE)

Original languageEnglish
Article number154887
JournalMetabolism: clinical and experimental
Volume124
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021

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