© The Author(s) 2016. Ultrasound imaging has been employed as a noninvasive technique to explore the sucking dynamics of the breastfeeding infant over the past 40 years. Recent improvements in the resolution of ultrasound images have allowed a more detailed description of the tongue movements during sucking, identification of oral structures, and measurements of nipple position and tongue motion. Several different scanning planes can be used and each show sucking from a different perspective. Ultrasound techniques and image anatomy are described in detail in this review and provide the basis for implementation in the objective assessment of breastfeeding.