Two−dimensional (2D) supports confined single−atom catalysts (2D SACs) with unique geometric and electronic structures have been attractive candidates in different catalytic applications, such as energy conversion and storage, value−added chemical synthesis and environmental remediation. However, their environmental applications lack of a comprehensive summary and in−depth discussion. In this review, recent progresses in synthesis routes and advanced characterization techniques for 2D SACs are introduced, and a comprehensive discussion on their applications in environmental remediation is presented. Generally, 2D SACs can be effective in catalytic elimination of aqueous and gaseous pollutants via radical or non−radical routes and transformation of toxic pollutants into less poisonous species or highly value−added products, opening a new horizon for the contaminant treatment. In addition, in−depth reaction mechanisms and potential pathways are systematically discussed, and the relationship between the structure−performance is highlighted. Finally, several critical challenges within this field are presented, and possible directions for further explorations of 2D SACs in environmental remediation are suggested. Although the research of 2D SACs in the environmental application is still in its infancy, this review will provide a timely summary on the emerging field, and would stimulate tremendous interest for designing more attractive 2D SACs and promoting their wide applications.