Two-year whey protein supplementation did not enhance muscle mass and physical function in well-nourished healthy older postmenopausal women

Kun Zhu, D.A. Kerr, X. Meng, A. Devine, V. Solah, C.W. Binns, Richard Prince

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    42 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    © 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Background: Proteinmay play a role in preventingmuscle losswith aging. To our knowledge, there have been no long-termrandomized controlled trials to examine the effects of increased dietary protein intake on muscle health in community-dwelling older women. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the effects of whey protein supplementation on muscle mass and physical function in community-dwelling older Australian women. Methods: In this 2 y randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, women aged 70-80 y (mean 74.3 ± 2.7 y) were randomly assigned to either a high protein drink containing 30 g of whey protein (n = 109) or a placebo drink containing 2.1 g protein (n = 110) daily. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry appendicular skeletal muscle mass, upper arm and calf (38% tibia) muscle cross-sectional area, physical function including hand grip strength, lower limb muscle strength and Timed Up and Go test, and 24 h urinary nitrogen were measured at baseline, 1 y, and 2 y. Results: A total of 196 women with at least one follow-upmeasurement were included in this analysis. Baselinemean BMI was 26.7 ± 3.9 kg/m2 and protein intake was 76 ± 17 g/d (1.1 ± 0.3 g · kg body weight-1 · d-1). A mean increase in protein intake of ~20 g/d in the protein group was confirmed by the estimates from 24 h urinary nitrogen. Over the 2 y in both groups therewas a significant decrease in the upper arm (mean ± SE:25.59 ± 0.75cm2) and calf (-0.77 ± 0.11 cm2)muscle area, as well as hand grip strength (-1.30 ± 0.3 kg) (all P <0.05), but appendicular skeletalmusclemass did not change significantly. Therewere no significant effects of the protein intervention on any of the muscle mass or physical functionmeasures (all P > 0.05) at 1 and 2 y. Conclusion: This study showed that in protein-replete, healthy, ambulant, postmenopausal older women, 30 g/d of extra protein did not improve the maintenance of muscle mass or physical function despite evidence of deterioration in muscle measurements in the upper limb.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2520-2526
    Number of pages7
    JournalJournal of Nutrition
    Volume145
    Issue number11
    Early online date23 Sep 2015
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2015

    Fingerprint

    Muscles
    Hand Strength
    Proteins
    Independent Living
    Arm
    Nitrogen
    Placebos
    Dietary Proteins
    Photon Absorptiometry
    Muscle Strength
    Whey Proteins
    Tibia
    Upper Extremity
    Lower Extremity
    Skeletal Muscle
    Body Weight
    Maintenance
    Health

    Cite this

    @article{c9fd638384f542c69d3d288bd3dfb24a,
    title = "Two-year whey protein supplementation did not enhance muscle mass and physical function in well-nourished healthy older postmenopausal women",
    abstract = "{\circledC} 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Background: Proteinmay play a role in preventingmuscle losswith aging. To our knowledge, there have been no long-termrandomized controlled trials to examine the effects of increased dietary protein intake on muscle health in community-dwelling older women. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the effects of whey protein supplementation on muscle mass and physical function in community-dwelling older Australian women. Methods: In this 2 y randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, women aged 70-80 y (mean 74.3 ± 2.7 y) were randomly assigned to either a high protein drink containing 30 g of whey protein (n = 109) or a placebo drink containing 2.1 g protein (n = 110) daily. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry appendicular skeletal muscle mass, upper arm and calf (38{\%} tibia) muscle cross-sectional area, physical function including hand grip strength, lower limb muscle strength and Timed Up and Go test, and 24 h urinary nitrogen were measured at baseline, 1 y, and 2 y. Results: A total of 196 women with at least one follow-upmeasurement were included in this analysis. Baselinemean BMI was 26.7 ± 3.9 kg/m2 and protein intake was 76 ± 17 g/d (1.1 ± 0.3 g · kg body weight-1 · d-1). A mean increase in protein intake of ~20 g/d in the protein group was confirmed by the estimates from 24 h urinary nitrogen. Over the 2 y in both groups therewas a significant decrease in the upper arm (mean ± SE:25.59 ± 0.75cm2) and calf (-0.77 ± 0.11 cm2)muscle area, as well as hand grip strength (-1.30 ± 0.3 kg) (all P <0.05), but appendicular skeletalmusclemass did not change significantly. Therewere no significant effects of the protein intervention on any of the muscle mass or physical functionmeasures (all P > 0.05) at 1 and 2 y. Conclusion: This study showed that in protein-replete, healthy, ambulant, postmenopausal older women, 30 g/d of extra protein did not improve the maintenance of muscle mass or physical function despite evidence of deterioration in muscle measurements in the upper limb.",
    author = "Kun Zhu and D.A. Kerr and X. Meng and A. Devine and V. Solah and C.W. Binns and Richard Prince",
    year = "2015",
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    Two-year whey protein supplementation did not enhance muscle mass and physical function in well-nourished healthy older postmenopausal women. / Zhu, Kun; Kerr, D.A.; Meng, X.; Devine, A.; Solah, V.; Binns, C.W.; Prince, Richard.

    In: Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 145, No. 11, 01.11.2015, p. 2520-2526.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Two-year whey protein supplementation did not enhance muscle mass and physical function in well-nourished healthy older postmenopausal women

    AU - Zhu, Kun

    AU - Kerr, D.A.

    AU - Meng, X.

    AU - Devine, A.

    AU - Solah, V.

    AU - Binns, C.W.

    AU - Prince, Richard

    PY - 2015/11/1

    Y1 - 2015/11/1

    N2 - © 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Background: Proteinmay play a role in preventingmuscle losswith aging. To our knowledge, there have been no long-termrandomized controlled trials to examine the effects of increased dietary protein intake on muscle health in community-dwelling older women. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the effects of whey protein supplementation on muscle mass and physical function in community-dwelling older Australian women. Methods: In this 2 y randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, women aged 70-80 y (mean 74.3 ± 2.7 y) were randomly assigned to either a high protein drink containing 30 g of whey protein (n = 109) or a placebo drink containing 2.1 g protein (n = 110) daily. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry appendicular skeletal muscle mass, upper arm and calf (38% tibia) muscle cross-sectional area, physical function including hand grip strength, lower limb muscle strength and Timed Up and Go test, and 24 h urinary nitrogen were measured at baseline, 1 y, and 2 y. Results: A total of 196 women with at least one follow-upmeasurement were included in this analysis. Baselinemean BMI was 26.7 ± 3.9 kg/m2 and protein intake was 76 ± 17 g/d (1.1 ± 0.3 g · kg body weight-1 · d-1). A mean increase in protein intake of ~20 g/d in the protein group was confirmed by the estimates from 24 h urinary nitrogen. Over the 2 y in both groups therewas a significant decrease in the upper arm (mean ± SE:25.59 ± 0.75cm2) and calf (-0.77 ± 0.11 cm2)muscle area, as well as hand grip strength (-1.30 ± 0.3 kg) (all P <0.05), but appendicular skeletalmusclemass did not change significantly. Therewere no significant effects of the protein intervention on any of the muscle mass or physical functionmeasures (all P > 0.05) at 1 and 2 y. Conclusion: This study showed that in protein-replete, healthy, ambulant, postmenopausal older women, 30 g/d of extra protein did not improve the maintenance of muscle mass or physical function despite evidence of deterioration in muscle measurements in the upper limb.

    AB - © 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Background: Proteinmay play a role in preventingmuscle losswith aging. To our knowledge, there have been no long-termrandomized controlled trials to examine the effects of increased dietary protein intake on muscle health in community-dwelling older women. Objective: In this study, we evaluated the effects of whey protein supplementation on muscle mass and physical function in community-dwelling older Australian women. Methods: In this 2 y randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, women aged 70-80 y (mean 74.3 ± 2.7 y) were randomly assigned to either a high protein drink containing 30 g of whey protein (n = 109) or a placebo drink containing 2.1 g protein (n = 110) daily. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry appendicular skeletal muscle mass, upper arm and calf (38% tibia) muscle cross-sectional area, physical function including hand grip strength, lower limb muscle strength and Timed Up and Go test, and 24 h urinary nitrogen were measured at baseline, 1 y, and 2 y. Results: A total of 196 women with at least one follow-upmeasurement were included in this analysis. Baselinemean BMI was 26.7 ± 3.9 kg/m2 and protein intake was 76 ± 17 g/d (1.1 ± 0.3 g · kg body weight-1 · d-1). A mean increase in protein intake of ~20 g/d in the protein group was confirmed by the estimates from 24 h urinary nitrogen. Over the 2 y in both groups therewas a significant decrease in the upper arm (mean ± SE:25.59 ± 0.75cm2) and calf (-0.77 ± 0.11 cm2)muscle area, as well as hand grip strength (-1.30 ± 0.3 kg) (all P <0.05), but appendicular skeletalmusclemass did not change significantly. Therewere no significant effects of the protein intervention on any of the muscle mass or physical functionmeasures (all P > 0.05) at 1 and 2 y. Conclusion: This study showed that in protein-replete, healthy, ambulant, postmenopausal older women, 30 g/d of extra protein did not improve the maintenance of muscle mass or physical function despite evidence of deterioration in muscle measurements in the upper limb.

    U2 - 10.3945/jn.115.218297

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