Two sides to every leaf: water and CO 2 transport in hypostomatous and amphistomatous leaves

Paul L. Drake, Hugo J. de Boer, Stanislaus J. Schymanski, Erik J. Veneklaas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Leaves with stomata on both upper and lower surfaces, termed amphistomatous, are relatively rare compared with hypostomatous leaves with stomata only on the lower surface. Amphistomaty occurs predominantly in fast-growing herbaceous annuals and in slow-growing perennial shrubs and trees. In this paper, we present the current understanding and hypotheses on the costs and benefits of amphistomaty related to water and CO 2 transport in contrasting leaf morphologies. First, there is no evidence that amphistomatous species achieve higher stomatal densities on a projected leaf area basis than hypostomatous species, but two-sided gas exchange is less limited by boundary layer effects. Second, amphistomaty may provide a specific advantage in thick leaves by shortening the pathway for CO 2 transport between the atmosphere and the chloroplasts. In thin leaves of fast-growing herbaceous annuals, in which both the adaxial and abaxial pathways are already short, amphistomaty enhances leaf–atmosphere gas-exchange capacity. Third, amphistomaty may help to optimise the leaf-interior water status for CO 2 transport by reducing temperature gradients and so preventing the condensation of water that could limit CO 2 diffusion. Fourth, a potential cost of amphistomaty is the need for additional investments in leaf water transport tissue to balance the water loss through the adaxial surface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1179-1187
Number of pages9
JournalNew Phytologist
Volume222
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2019

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Carbon Monoxide
Water
leaves
water
Gases
stomata
gas exchange
Chloroplasts
Atmosphere
Cost-Benefit Analysis
shortenings
water balance
temperature profiles
Costs and Cost Analysis
Temperature
leaf area
shrubs
chloroplasts

Cite this

Drake, Paul L. ; de Boer, Hugo J. ; Schymanski, Stanislaus J. ; Veneklaas, Erik J. / Two sides to every leaf : water and CO 2 transport in hypostomatous and amphistomatous leaves. In: New Phytologist. 2019 ; Vol. 222, No. 3. pp. 1179-1187.
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Two sides to every leaf : water and CO 2 transport in hypostomatous and amphistomatous leaves. / Drake, Paul L.; de Boer, Hugo J.; Schymanski, Stanislaus J.; Veneklaas, Erik J.

In: New Phytologist, Vol. 222, No. 3, 01.05.2019, p. 1179-1187.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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