Trichoderma hamatum strain Th23, isolated from tomato roots, was molecularly identified using phylogenetic analysis based on ITS, tef1, and rpb2 gene sequences and evaluated for its efficiency in suppressing tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection for the first time. Under greenhouse conditions, the application of Th23 promoted tomato growth with significant increases in shoot and root parameters as well as improved total chlorophyll content. Compared to the nontreated tomato plants, the soil pretreatment of tomato plants 48 h before TMV inoculation produced a significant reduction in the TMV accumulation level by 84.69% and enhanced different growth parameters. In contrast, TMV had a deleterious impact on fresh and dry matter accumulation and inhibited photosynthetic capacity. Furthermore, the protective activity of Th23 was associated with a significant increase in reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes (PPO, CAT, and SOD) as well as decreased nonenzymatic oxidative stress markers (H2O2 and MDA) compared to the TMV treatment at 15 days post-viral inoculation (dpi). In addition, considerable increases in the transcriptional levels of polyphenolic genes (HQT and CHS) and pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-1 and PR-7) were shown to induce systemic resistance against TMV. Consequently, the ability of T. hamatum strain Th23 to promote plant growth, induce systemic resistance, and boost innate immunity against TMV infestation supported the incorporation of Th23 as a potential biocontrol agent for managing plant viral infections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the antiviral activity of T. hamatum against plant viral infection.