Tremelimumab as second-line or third-line treatment in relapsed malignant mesothelioma (DETERMINE): a multicentre, international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial

Michele Maio, Arnaud Scherpereel, Luana Calabrò, Joachim Aerts, Susana Cedres Perez, Alessandra Bearz, Kristiaan Nackaerts, Dean A. Fennell, Dariusz Kowalski, Anne S. Tsao, Paul Taylor, Federica Grosso, Scott J. Antonia, Anna K. Nowak, Maria Taboada, Martina Puglisi, Paul K. Stockman, Hedy L. Kindler

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Abstract

Background New therapeutic strategies for malignant mesothelioma are urgently needed. In the DETERMINE study, we investigated the effects of the cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) monoclonal antibody tremelimumab in patients with previously treated advanced malignant mesothelioma. Methods DETERMINE was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial done at 105 study centres across 19 countries in patients with unresectable pleural or peritoneal malignant mesothelioma who had progressed after one or two previous systemic treatments for advanced disease. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 and measurable disease as defined in the modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.0 for pleural mesothelioma or RECIST version 1.1 for peritoneal mesothelioma. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) in blocks of three, stratified by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer status (low risk vs high risk), line of therapy (second line vs third line), and anatomic site (pleural vs peritoneal), by use of an interactive voice or web system, to receive intravenous tremelimumab (10 mg/kg) or placebo every 4 weeks for 7 doses and every 12 weeks thereafter until a treatment discontinuation criterion was met. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The trial is ongoing but no longer recruiting participants, and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01843374. Findings Between May 17, 2013, and Dec 4, 2014, 571 patients were randomly assigned to receive tremelimumab (n=382) or placebo (n=189), of whom 569 patients received treatment (two patients in the tremelimumab group were excluded from the safety population because they did not receive treatment). At the data cutoff date (Jan 24, 2016), 307 (80%) of 382 patients had died in the tremelimumab group and 154 (81%) of 189 patients had died in the placebo group. Median overall survival in the intention-to-treat population did not differ between the treatment groups: 7·7 months (95% CI 6·8–8·9) in the tremelimumab group and 7·3 months (5·9–8·7) in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0·92 [95% CI 0·76–1·12], p=0·41). Treatment-emergent adverse events of grade 3 or worse occurred in 246 (65%) of 380 patients in the tremelimumab group and 91 (48%) of 189 patients in the placebo group; the most common were dyspnoea (34 [9%] patients in the tremelimumab group vs 27 [14%] patients in the placebo group), diarrhoea (58 [15%] vs one [

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1261-1273
Number of pages13
JournalThe Lancet Oncology
Volume18
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2017

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    Maio, M., Scherpereel, A., Calabrò, L., Aerts, J., Perez, S. C., Bearz, A., Nackaerts, K., Fennell, D. A., Kowalski, D., Tsao, A. S., Taylor, P., Grosso, F., Antonia, S. J., Nowak, A. K., Taboada, M., Puglisi, M., Stockman, P. K., & Kindler, H. L. (2017). Tremelimumab as second-line or third-line treatment in relapsed malignant mesothelioma (DETERMINE): a multicentre, international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial. The Lancet Oncology, 18(9), 1261-1273. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(17)30446-1