Fetal tectal tissue was transplanted adjacent to the superior colliculus of neonatal rats. In mature recipient animals, ultrastructural studies provided evidence of host cortical synapses on cells within the transplants. To determine whether these synapses were functionally effective in driving transplant cells, tungsten in glass microelectrodes were used to record from single units in the transplants and the host cerebral cortex was electrically stimulated. Of the 214 tested units which were shown histologically to be within the transplants, 25 (11.7%) were orthodromically excited from host cortex at latencies of 15 ms or less (mean 7.3 ms). A further four transplant units were activated at relatively long latencies (40-300 ms). The presence of a functional host retinal input was also tested by electrically stimulating the host optic nerves. No transplant units were activated from these sites, apparently because very few electrode penetrations passed through the localized zones of optic axon distribution. The possible functional interrelationships between transplant and host are discussed.