We propose a transit-time based method to ascertain the azimuth angle of a velocity vector by spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT), so that three-dimensional (3-D) velocity vector can be quantified. A custom-designed slit plate with predetermined slit orientation is placed into the sample beam to create three delay-encoded sub-beams of different beam shape for sample probing. Based on the transit-time analysis for Doppler bandwidth, the azimuth angle within 90° range is evaluated by exploitation of the complex signals corresponding to three path length delays. 3-D velocity vector is quantified through further estimating of Doppler angle and flow velocity by combined Doppler shift and Doppler bandwidth measurements. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by good agreement between the determined azimuth angles and the preset ones, and further confirmed by velocity vector measurement of flowing solution inside a capillary tube. © 2010 Optical Society of America.