Large-scale gene discovery has been performed for the grass fungal endophytes Neotyphodium coenophialum, Neotyphodium lolii, and Epichloe festucae. The resulting sequences have been annotated by comparison with public DNA and protein sequence databases and using intermediate gene ontology annotation tools. Endophyte sequences have also been analysed for the presence of simple sequence repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism molecular genetic markers. Sequences and annotation are maintained within a MySQL database that may be queried using a custom web interface. Two cDNA-based microarrays have been generated from this genome resource, They permit the interrogation of 3806 Neotyphodium genes (Nchip (TM) rnicroarray), and 4195 Neotyphodium and 920 Epichloe genes (EndoChip (TM) microarray), respectively. These microarrays provide tools for high-throughput transcriptome analysis, including genome-specific gene expression studies, profiling of novel endophyte genes, and investigation of the host grass-symbiont interaction. Comparative transcriptome analysis in Neotyphodium and Epichloe was performed. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.