Tracking of Vitamin D status from childhood to early adulthood and its association with peak bone mass

Kun Zhu, Wendy H. Oddy, Patrick Holt, Wendy Chan She Ping-Delfos, Jenny Mountain, Stephen Lye, Craig Pennell, Prue H. Hart, John P. Walsh

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Abstract

Background: To our knowledge, there are few longitudinal studies of Vitamin D status from childhood to early adulthood, and it is uncertain whether Vitamin D predicts peak bone mass in young adults. Objectives: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the long-term stability of Vitamin D status from ages ± to 20 y in healthy individuals and to study associations between serum 25-hydroxyVitamin D [25(OH)D] at different developmental stages and bone mass measured at age 20 y. Design: Participants were offspring of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study. Serum 25(OH)D was assessed at ages 6, 14, 17, and 20 y, and whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured at age 20 y through the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Our analysis included 821 participants (385 females) who had≥3 serum 25(OH)D measures and DXA data. We used latent class growth analysis and identified 4 Vitamin D status trajectories: consistently lower (n = 259), decreasing (n = 125), increasing (n = 138), and consistently higher (n = 299). Results: There were significant correlations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations at different time points in both sexes (r = 0.346-0.560, P <0.001), with stronger correlations at adjacent time points. In males, but not in females, serum 25(OH)D at ages 6, 17, and 20 y was positively associated with total-body BMC and BMD at age 20 y [covariate-adjusted increments of 40.7-53.9 g and 14.7-18.6 mg/cm-, respectively, per 25 nmol/L 25(OH)D]; when 25(OH)D at all 4 ages was included in the same model, the concentration at age ± y remained significant. Males in the "consistently higher" trajectory had 3.2-3.4% higher total body BMC and BMD than those who were in the "consistently lower" trajectory, accounting for age and anthropometric and lifestyle factors. Conclusions: Within both sexes, there are moderate associations between Vitamin D status measured in prepuberty, adolescence, and early adulthood. Vitamin D status in childhood is a significant predictor of peak bone mass in male but not female subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2017;106:276-83.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)276-283
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume106
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017

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Vitamin D
Bone Density
Bone and Bones
Serum
Photon Absorptiometry
Longitudinal Studies
Life Style
Young Adult
Cohort Studies
Pregnancy
Growth

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Zhu, Kun ; Oddy, Wendy H. ; Holt, Patrick ; Ping-Delfos, Wendy Chan She ; Mountain, Jenny ; Lye, Stephen ; Pennell, Craig ; Hart, Prue H. ; Walsh, John P. / Tracking of Vitamin D status from childhood to early adulthood and its association with peak bone mass. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2017 ; Vol. 106, No. 1. pp. 276-283.
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abstract = "Background: To our knowledge, there are few longitudinal studies of Vitamin D status from childhood to early adulthood, and it is uncertain whether Vitamin D predicts peak bone mass in young adults. Objectives: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the long-term stability of Vitamin D status from ages ± to 20 y in healthy individuals and to study associations between serum 25-hydroxyVitamin D [25(OH)D] at different developmental stages and bone mass measured at age 20 y. Design: Participants were offspring of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study. Serum 25(OH)D was assessed at ages 6, 14, 17, and 20 y, and whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured at age 20 y through the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Our analysis included 821 participants (385 females) who had≥3 serum 25(OH)D measures and DXA data. We used latent class growth analysis and identified 4 Vitamin D status trajectories: consistently lower (n = 259), decreasing (n = 125), increasing (n = 138), and consistently higher (n = 299). Results: There were significant correlations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations at different time points in both sexes (r = 0.346-0.560, P <0.001), with stronger correlations at adjacent time points. In males, but not in females, serum 25(OH)D at ages 6, 17, and 20 y was positively associated with total-body BMC and BMD at age 20 y [covariate-adjusted increments of 40.7-53.9 g and 14.7-18.6 mg/cm-, respectively, per 25 nmol/L 25(OH)D]; when 25(OH)D at all 4 ages was included in the same model, the concentration at age ± y remained significant. Males in the {"}consistently higher{"} trajectory had 3.2-3.4{\%} higher total body BMC and BMD than those who were in the {"}consistently lower{"} trajectory, accounting for age and anthropometric and lifestyle factors. Conclusions: Within both sexes, there are moderate associations between Vitamin D status measured in prepuberty, adolescence, and early adulthood. Vitamin D status in childhood is a significant predictor of peak bone mass in male but not female subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2017;106:276-83.",
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Tracking of Vitamin D status from childhood to early adulthood and its association with peak bone mass. / Zhu, Kun; Oddy, Wendy H.; Holt, Patrick; Ping-Delfos, Wendy Chan She; Mountain, Jenny; Lye, Stephen; Pennell, Craig; Hart, Prue H.; Walsh, John P.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 106, No. 1, 01.07.2017, p. 276-283.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Tracking of Vitamin D status from childhood to early adulthood and its association with peak bone mass

AU - Zhu, Kun

AU - Oddy, Wendy H.

AU - Holt, Patrick

AU - Ping-Delfos, Wendy Chan She

AU - Mountain, Jenny

AU - Lye, Stephen

AU - Pennell, Craig

AU - Hart, Prue H.

AU - Walsh, John P.

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N2 - Background: To our knowledge, there are few longitudinal studies of Vitamin D status from childhood to early adulthood, and it is uncertain whether Vitamin D predicts peak bone mass in young adults. Objectives: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the long-term stability of Vitamin D status from ages ± to 20 y in healthy individuals and to study associations between serum 25-hydroxyVitamin D [25(OH)D] at different developmental stages and bone mass measured at age 20 y. Design: Participants were offspring of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study. Serum 25(OH)D was assessed at ages 6, 14, 17, and 20 y, and whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured at age 20 y through the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Our analysis included 821 participants (385 females) who had≥3 serum 25(OH)D measures and DXA data. We used latent class growth analysis and identified 4 Vitamin D status trajectories: consistently lower (n = 259), decreasing (n = 125), increasing (n = 138), and consistently higher (n = 299). Results: There were significant correlations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations at different time points in both sexes (r = 0.346-0.560, P <0.001), with stronger correlations at adjacent time points. In males, but not in females, serum 25(OH)D at ages 6, 17, and 20 y was positively associated with total-body BMC and BMD at age 20 y [covariate-adjusted increments of 40.7-53.9 g and 14.7-18.6 mg/cm-, respectively, per 25 nmol/L 25(OH)D]; when 25(OH)D at all 4 ages was included in the same model, the concentration at age ± y remained significant. Males in the "consistently higher" trajectory had 3.2-3.4% higher total body BMC and BMD than those who were in the "consistently lower" trajectory, accounting for age and anthropometric and lifestyle factors. Conclusions: Within both sexes, there are moderate associations between Vitamin D status measured in prepuberty, adolescence, and early adulthood. Vitamin D status in childhood is a significant predictor of peak bone mass in male but not female subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2017;106:276-83.

AB - Background: To our knowledge, there are few longitudinal studies of Vitamin D status from childhood to early adulthood, and it is uncertain whether Vitamin D predicts peak bone mass in young adults. Objectives: The purpose of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the long-term stability of Vitamin D status from ages ± to 20 y in healthy individuals and to study associations between serum 25-hydroxyVitamin D [25(OH)D] at different developmental stages and bone mass measured at age 20 y. Design: Participants were offspring of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study. Serum 25(OH)D was assessed at ages 6, 14, 17, and 20 y, and whole-body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured at age 20 y through the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Our analysis included 821 participants (385 females) who had≥3 serum 25(OH)D measures and DXA data. We used latent class growth analysis and identified 4 Vitamin D status trajectories: consistently lower (n = 259), decreasing (n = 125), increasing (n = 138), and consistently higher (n = 299). Results: There were significant correlations between serum 25(OH)D concentrations at different time points in both sexes (r = 0.346-0.560, P <0.001), with stronger correlations at adjacent time points. In males, but not in females, serum 25(OH)D at ages 6, 17, and 20 y was positively associated with total-body BMC and BMD at age 20 y [covariate-adjusted increments of 40.7-53.9 g and 14.7-18.6 mg/cm-, respectively, per 25 nmol/L 25(OH)D]; when 25(OH)D at all 4 ages was included in the same model, the concentration at age ± y remained significant. Males in the "consistently higher" trajectory had 3.2-3.4% higher total body BMC and BMD than those who were in the "consistently lower" trajectory, accounting for age and anthropometric and lifestyle factors. Conclusions: Within both sexes, there are moderate associations between Vitamin D status measured in prepuberty, adolescence, and early adulthood. Vitamin D status in childhood is a significant predictor of peak bone mass in male but not female subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2017;106:276-83.

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