The expansion of indigenous art and the interest it has generated both at a domestic and international level means large monetary transactions are taking place between art galleries or centers and purchasers. As such, an accurate and conclusive method for provenance determination of traditional indigenous artistic materials must be established that can, if necessary, be used to assist in authentication of artworks. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was utilized for elemental differentiation and provenance establishment of ocher samples. This research was used to develop a robust scientific protocol which facilitates definitive and accurate determination of provenance of Australian ochers and the artworks created using them. Analysis of the results obtained through this study show that the trace metal distribution patterns alone appear to be sufficient evidence to establish provenance of specific ochers, although additional differentiation between ocher samples, using major element distribution patterns, was achieved through the utilization of X-ray analytical techniques.