The standard paradigm for microbiological testing is dependent on the presentation of a patient to a clinician. Tests are then requested based on differential diagnoses using the patient's symptoms as a guide. The era of high-throughput genomic methods has the potential to replace this model for the first time with what could be referred to as "hypothesis-free testing." This approach utilizes one of a variety of methodologies to obtain a sequence from potentially any nucleic acid in a clinical sample, without prior knowledge of its content. We discuss the advantages of such an approach and the challenges in making this a reality.