See Ginevrino and Valente (doi:10.1093/brain/awx260) for a scientific commentary on this article. Autosomal dominant torsion dystonia-1 is a disease with incomplete penetrance most often caused by an in-frame GAG deletion (p.Glu303del) in the endoplasmic reticulum luminal protein torsinA encoded by TOR1A. We report an association of the homozygous dominant disease-causing TOR1A p.Glu303del mutation, and a novel homozygous missense variant (p.Gly318Ser) with a severe arthrogryposis phenotype with developmental delay, strabismus and tremor in three unrelated Iranian families. All parents who were carriers of the TOR1A variant showed no evidence of neurological symptoms or signs, indicating decreased penetrance similar to families with autosomal dominant torsion dystonia-1. The results from cell assays demonstrate that the p.Gly318Ser substitution causes a redistribution of torsinA from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nuclear envelope, similar to the hallmark of the p.Glu303del mutation. Our study highlights that TOR1A mutations should be considered in patients with severe arthrogryposis and further expands the phenotypic spectrum associated with TOR1A mutations.