TOR1A variants cause a severe arthrogryposis with developmental delay, strabismus and tremor

Ariana Kariminejad, Martin Dahl-Halvarsson, Gianina Ravenscroft, Fariba Afroozan, Elham Keshavarz, Hayley Goullée, Mark R. Davis, Mehrshid Faraji Zonooz, Hossein Najmabadi, Nigel G. Laing, Homa Tajsharghi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)


See Ginevrino and Valente (doi:10.1093/brain/awx260) for a scientific commentary on this article. Autosomal dominant torsion dystonia-1 is a disease with incomplete penetrance most often caused by an in-frame GAG deletion (p.Glu303del) in the endoplasmic reticulum luminal protein torsinA encoded by TOR1A. We report an association of the homozygous dominant disease-causing TOR1A p.Glu303del mutation, and a novel homozygous missense variant (p.Gly318Ser) with a severe arthrogryposis phenotype with developmental delay, strabismus and tremor in three unrelated Iranian families. All parents who were carriers of the TOR1A variant showed no evidence of neurological symptoms or signs, indicating decreased penetrance similar to families with autosomal dominant torsion dystonia-1. The results from cell assays demonstrate that the p.Gly318Ser substitution causes a redistribution of torsinA from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nuclear envelope, similar to the hallmark of the p.Glu303del mutation. Our study highlights that TOR1A mutations should be considered in patients with severe arthrogryposis and further expands the phenotypic spectrum associated with TOR1A mutations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2851-2859
Number of pages9
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017

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