This paper details an anthracological pilot study for the Lepu-Kina rockshelter site (AT-7), located on Atauro Island, East Timor and considers the implications of the preliminary results for the archaeology of the region. Archaeological wood charcoal analysis can reveal aspects of fuel selection, human landscape modifications and management of vegetal resources. The difficulties inherent in tropical archaeobotany have, however, constrained anthracological research in Island Southeast Asia. This study is therefore principally an attempt to assess the potential for future anthracological investigations to address archaeological questions related to vegetation resource uses and horticultural practices in Island Southeast Asia. Results reveal that the occupants of the Lepu-Kina rockshelter 2500 years ago had access to abundant semi-evergreen tropical forests and savannah. The presence of Artocarpus, identified as either breadnut or breadfruit (A. cf. altilis/camansi) is also recorded. These results confirm that a more expansive anthracological investigation of the Lepu-Kina rockshelter, accompanied by a local or regional reference collection and wood anatomy resource, has significant potential to expand on these initial observations.