Timing of KRT among Children and Young Adults

Nicholas g. Larkins, Wai Lim, Carrie Goh, Anna Francis, Hugh Mccarthy, Siah Kim, Germaine Wong, Jonathan c. Craig

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No randomized trials exist to guide timing the initiation of KRT in children. We sought to define trends and predictors of the eGFR at initiation of KRT, center-related clinical practice variation, and any association with patient survival.
Children and young adults (1–25 years) commencing KRT (dialysis or kidney transplantation) between 1995 and 2018 were included using data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry. The associations between eGFR on commencing KRT and covariates were estimated using quantile regression. Cox regression was used to estimate the association between eGFR and patient survival. Logistic regression, categorizing eGFR about a value of 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2, was used in conjunction with a random effect by center to quantify clinical practice variation.
Overall, 2274 participants were included. The median eGFR at KRT initiation increased from 7 to 9 ml/min per 1.73 m2 over the study period and the 90th centile from 11 to 17 ml/min per 1.73m2. The effect of era on median eGFR was modified by modality, with a greater increase among those receiving a preemptive kidney transplant (1.0 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per 5 years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6 to 1.5) or peritoneal dialysis (0.7 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per 5 years; 95% CI, 0.4 to 0.9), compared with hemodialysis (0.1 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per 5 years; 95% CI −0.1 to 0.3). There were 252 deaths (median follow-up 8.5 years, interquartile range 3.7–14.2) and no association between eGFR and survival (hazard ratio 1.01 per ml/min per 1.73 m2; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.04). Center variation explained 6% of the total variance in the odds of initiating KRT earlier. This rose to over 10% when comparing pediatric centers alone.
Children and young adults progressively commenced KRT earlier. This change was more pronounced for children starting peritoneal dialysis or receiving a preemptive kidney transplant. Earlier initiation of KRT was not associated with any difference in patient survival. A substantial proportion of clinical practice variation was due to center variation alone.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1041-1050
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number8
Early online dateJun 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2023

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