Time to analgesia in an emergency department in Eastern Nepal

R. Bhandari, G. Malla, B.K. Rai, Christopher Curry

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency MedicineObjectives: Nepal is a least developed country, with limited healthcare resources. An 18 month Fellowship in Emergency Medicine has contributed some improvements to care. This study assessed time to first analgesia in higher and lower acuity patients. Methods: A prospective observational study of 101 patients in each of the Australasian Triage Scale (ATS) 2, 3 and 100 in ATS 4 was undertaken at B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. Convenience sampling was used coinciding with researcher's duty hours. Pain scores and time to analgesia were recorded. Results: A total of 302 patients were included. The doctors identified pain in 274 (90%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 86.74–93.65), severity recorded in 92 (30.5%, 95% CI 25–36). Median time from triage to analgesia was 30 min (interquartile range [IQR] 15–60) for ATS 2 patients, 60 min (IQR 40–70) for ATS 3 and 69 min (IQR 45–116) for ATS 4. Tramadol was the analgesic used most commonly (33%), followed by diclofenac (25%), morphine (16%), paracetamol (14%) and ketamine (2%). Analgesia was provided to 212 (70%, 95% CI 64.6–75.2), 65 (30.66%, 95% CI 24.5–37.3) with ATS 2, 85 (40%, 95% CI 33.4–47) with ATS 3 and 62 (29.2%, 95% CI 23.2–35.8) with ATS 4. A total of 44 patients (20.7%, 95% CI 15.5–26.8) with mild, 101 (47.6%, 95% CI 40.7–54.6) with moderate and 60 (28.3%, 95% CI 22.3–34.8) with severe pain received analgesics. Conclusion: Time to analgesia for triage score 2 is lower compared to higher triage score. However, a large proportion of patients still do not receive analgesia. This is likely addressed by using a combination of strategies.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)444-449
    JournalEMA - Emergency Medicine Australasia
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2016


    Dive into the research topics of 'Time to analgesia in an emergency department in Eastern Nepal'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this