Tibetan ore deposits: A conjunction of accretionary orogeny and continental collision

Jun Deng, Qingfei Wang, Xiang Sun, Lin Yang, David I. Groves, Qihai Shu, Liang Gao, Liqiang Yang, Kunfeng Qiu, Changming Wang, Chaoyi Dong

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47 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reviews the spatial-temporal distribution, geological and geochemical features, and geophysical context of diverse types of Cenozoic ore deposits formed during India-Eurasia continental collision in Tibet, in order to shed new light on their genesis and their control by mantle lithosphere. The parental magmas for porphyry-skarn Cu (± Mo ± Au) deposits were derived from metal-rich pre-Cenozoic juvenile crust, and the high magma oxidation state was controlled by involved mantle-derived basic magmas and thickened crust condition; magma emplacement was controlled by structures related both to tears in the subducting continental slab to deep and to mantle-crust decoupling parts at depth. Orogenic Au deposits mostly formed intermittently from hydrothermal fluids formed by devolatilization of earlier-fertilized mantle lithosphere that was triggered by asthenosphere upwelling; they were largely controlled by lithosphere-scale shear systems that reactivated earlier-formed suture zones. Giant MVT Zn[sbnd]Pb deposits, hosted by ancient oil reservoirs, formed during salt diapirism and infiltration of metal-rich basinal brines related to crustal-scale channel flow. The diverse range of ore deposits was derived predominantly through release of metal and fluid components, introduced into the crust and mantle lithosphere that occurred in the earlier oceanic subduction during anomalous lithosphere-scale deformation. The metallogenic history of collisional orogens contrasts with those of accretionary orogens.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104245
JournalEarth-Science Reviews
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


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