This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on three-dimensional scour below offshore pipelines subject to steady currents. The major emphasis of the investigation is on the scour propagation velocity along the pipeline after the scour initiation. Physical experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of various parameters on scour propagation velocity along the pipeline in a water flume of 4 m wide, 2.5 m deep and 50 m long. Local scour depths directly below the model pipeline were measured using specifically developed conductivity scour probes. Effects of various parameters such as pipeline embedment depth, incoming flow Shields parameter and flow incident angle (relative to the pipeline) on scour propagation velocity along the pipeline were investigated. It was found that scour propagation velocity generally increases with the increase of Shields parameter but decreases with the increase of the pipeline embedment depth. A general predictive formula for scour propagation velocity is proposed and validated against the experimental results.
Cheng, L., Yeow, K. K., Zhang, Z., & Teng, B. (2009). Three-dimensional scour below pipelines in steady currents. Coastal Engineering, 56(5-6), 577-590. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2008.12.004