Three-Dimensional Direct Numerical Simulations of a Yawed Square Cylinder in Steady Flow

Xiaofan Lou, Chenlin Sun, Hongyi Jiang, Hongjun Zhu, Hongwei An, Tongming Zhou

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1 Citation (Scopus)


The effects of yaw angle on wake characteristics of a stationary square cylinder were investigated in terms of the hydrodynamic forces, the vortex shedding frequency, and the vortical structures using direct numerical simulations (DNS) at a Reynolds number of 1000. In total, four yaw angles, namely, alpha = 0 degrees, 15 degrees, 30 degrees, and 45 degrees, were considered. The three-dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes equations were solved directly using the finite volume method in OpenFOAM. It was found that the first-order statistics of the drag coefficient and the Strouhal number satisfied the independence principle (IP) closely. However, the second-order statistics of the drag and lift coefficients deviated apparently from the IP for alpha >= 25 degrees. The iso-surfaces of the spanwise vorticity gradually disorganized and the magnitudes of the spanwise vorticity contour decreased as the yaw angle alpha was increased from 0 degrees to 45 degrees. By contrast, the streamwise vorticity iso-surfaces were found to become more organized and the magnitudes of the spanwise velocity contour became larger as a result of the increase in yaw angle, indicating the impairment of the quasi-two-dimensionality and the enhancement of the three-dimensionality of the wake flow. Extensive comparisons were also made with previous DNS results for a yawed circular cylinder, and both similarities and differences between these two kinds of cylinder wakes are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1128
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Marine Science and Engineering
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


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