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The effects of yaw angle on wake characteristics of a stationary square cylinder were investigated in terms of the hydrodynamic forces, the vortex shedding frequency, and the vortical structures using direct numerical simulations (DNS) at a Reynolds number of 1000. In total, four yaw angles, namely, alpha = 0 degrees, 15 degrees, 30 degrees, and 45 degrees, were considered. The three-dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes equations were solved directly using the finite volume method in OpenFOAM. It was found that the first-order statistics of the drag coefficient and the Strouhal number satisfied the independence principle (IP) closely. However, the second-order statistics of the drag and lift coefficients deviated apparently from the IP for alpha >= 25 degrees. The iso-surfaces of the spanwise vorticity gradually disorganized and the magnitudes of the spanwise vorticity contour decreased as the yaw angle alpha was increased from 0 degrees to 45 degrees. By contrast, the streamwise vorticity iso-surfaces were found to become more organized and the magnitudes of the spanwise velocity contour became larger as a result of the increase in yaw angle, indicating the impairment of the quasi-two-dimensionality and the enhancement of the three-dimensionality of the wake flow. Extensive comparisons were also made with previous DNS results for a yawed circular cylinder, and both similarities and differences between these two kinds of cylinder wakes are discussed.
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