Key message: This study revealed that the western Mediterranean provided the founder population for domesticated narrow-leafed lupin and that genetic diversity decreased significantly during narrow-leafed lupin domestication. Abstract: The evolutionary history of plants during domestication profoundly shaped the genome structure and genetic diversity of today’s crops. Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies allow unprecedented opportunities to understand genome evolution in minor crops, which constitute the majority of plant domestications. A diverse set of 231 wild and domesticated narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) accessions were subjected to genotyping-by-sequencing using diversity arrays technology. Phylogenetic, genome-wide divergence and linkage disequilibrium analyses were applied to identify the founder population of domesticated narrow-leafed lupin and the genome-wide effect of domestication on its genome. We found wild western Mediterranean population as the founder of domesticated narrow-leafed lupin. Domestication was associated with an almost threefold reduction in genome diversity in domesticated accessions compared to their wild relatives. Selective sweep analysis identified no significant footprints of selection around domestication loci. A genome-wide association study identified single nucleotide polymorphism markers associated with pod dehiscence. This new understanding of the genomic consequences of narrow-leafed lupin domestication along with molecular marker tools developed here will assist plant breeders more effectively access wild genetic diversity for crop improvement.