The VMC survey - XXXI: The spatially resolved star formation history of the main body of the Small Magellanic Cloud

Stefano Rubele, Giada Pastorelli, Léo Girardi, Maria Rosa L. Cioni, Simone Zaggia, Paola Marigo, Kenji Bekki, Alessandro Bressan, Gisella Clementini, Richard de Grijs, Jim Emerson, Martin A.T. Groenewegen, Valentin D. Ivanov, Tatiana Muraveva, Ambra Nanni, Joana M. Oliveira, Vincenzo Ripepi, Ning Chen Sun, Jacco Th van Loon

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Abstract

We recover the spatially resolved star formation history across the entire main body andWing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), using 14 deep tile images from the VISTA survey of the Magellanic Clouds (VMC) in the YJKs filters. The analysis is performed on 168 subregions of size 0.143 deg2 covering a total contiguous area of 23.57 deg2. We apply a colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) reconstruction method that returns the best-fitting star formation rate SFR(t), age-metallicity relation, distance and mean reddening, together with their confidence intervals, for each subregion. With respect to previous analyses, we use a far larger set of the VMC data, updated stellar models, and fit the two available CMDs (Y - Ks versus Ks and J - Ks versus Ks) independently. The results allow us to derive a more complete and more reliable picture of how the mean distances, extinction values, star formation rate, and metallicities vary across the SMC, and provide a better description of the populations that form its Bar and Wing. We conclude that the SMC has formed a total mass of (5.31 ± 0.05) × 108 M in stars over its lifetime. About two-thirds of this mass is expected to be still locked in stars and stellar remnants. 50 per cent of the mass was formed prior to an age of 6.3 Gyr, and 80 per cent was formed between 8 and 3.5 Gyr ago. We also illustrate the likely distribution of stellar ages and metallicities in different parts of the CMD, to aid the interpretation of data from future astrometric and spectroscopic surveys of the SMC.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5017-5036
Number of pages20
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume478
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Aug 2018

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Magellanic clouds
star formation
histories
history
diagram
metallicity
color-magnitude diagram
star formation rate
confidence interval
extinction
filter
stars
stellar models
tiles
wings
confidence
coverings
intervals
filters
life (durability)

Cite this

Rubele, Stefano ; Pastorelli, Giada ; Girardi, Léo ; Cioni, Maria Rosa L. ; Zaggia, Simone ; Marigo, Paola ; Bekki, Kenji ; Bressan, Alessandro ; Clementini, Gisella ; de Grijs, Richard ; Emerson, Jim ; Groenewegen, Martin A.T. ; Ivanov, Valentin D. ; Muraveva, Tatiana ; Nanni, Ambra ; Oliveira, Joana M. ; Ripepi, Vincenzo ; Sun, Ning Chen ; van Loon, Jacco Th. / The VMC survey - XXXI : The spatially resolved star formation history of the main body of the Small Magellanic Cloud. In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2018 ; Vol. 478, No. 4. pp. 5017-5036.
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abstract = "We recover the spatially resolved star formation history across the entire main body andWing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), using 14 deep tile images from the VISTA survey of the Magellanic Clouds (VMC) in the YJKs filters. The analysis is performed on 168 subregions of size 0.143 deg2 covering a total contiguous area of 23.57 deg2. We apply a colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) reconstruction method that returns the best-fitting star formation rate SFR(t), age-metallicity relation, distance and mean reddening, together with their confidence intervals, for each subregion. With respect to previous analyses, we use a far larger set of the VMC data, updated stellar models, and fit the two available CMDs (Y - Ks versus Ks and J - Ks versus Ks) independently. The results allow us to derive a more complete and more reliable picture of how the mean distances, extinction values, star formation rate, and metallicities vary across the SMC, and provide a better description of the populations that form its Bar and Wing. We conclude that the SMC has formed a total mass of (5.31 ± 0.05) × 108 M⊙ in stars over its lifetime. About two-thirds of this mass is expected to be still locked in stars and stellar remnants. 50 per cent of the mass was formed prior to an age of 6.3 Gyr, and 80 per cent was formed between 8 and 3.5 Gyr ago. We also illustrate the likely distribution of stellar ages and metallicities in different parts of the CMD, to aid the interpretation of data from future astrometric and spectroscopic surveys of the SMC.",
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Rubele, S, Pastorelli, G, Girardi, L, Cioni, MRL, Zaggia, S, Marigo, P, Bekki, K, Bressan, A, Clementini, G, de Grijs, R, Emerson, J, Groenewegen, MAT, Ivanov, VD, Muraveva, T, Nanni, A, Oliveira, JM, Ripepi, V, Sun, NC & van Loon, JT 2018, 'The VMC survey - XXXI: The spatially resolved star formation history of the main body of the Small Magellanic Cloud' Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 478, no. 4, pp. 5017-5036. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/sty1279

The VMC survey - XXXI : The spatially resolved star formation history of the main body of the Small Magellanic Cloud. / Rubele, Stefano; Pastorelli, Giada; Girardi, Léo; Cioni, Maria Rosa L.; Zaggia, Simone; Marigo, Paola; Bekki, Kenji; Bressan, Alessandro; Clementini, Gisella; de Grijs, Richard; Emerson, Jim; Groenewegen, Martin A.T.; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Muraveva, Tatiana; Nanni, Ambra; Oliveira, Joana M.; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Sun, Ning Chen; van Loon, Jacco Th.

In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 478, No. 4, 21.08.2018, p. 5017-5036.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The VMC survey - XXXI

T2 - The spatially resolved star formation history of the main body of the Small Magellanic Cloud

AU - Rubele, Stefano

AU - Pastorelli, Giada

AU - Girardi, Léo

AU - Cioni, Maria Rosa L.

AU - Zaggia, Simone

AU - Marigo, Paola

AU - Bekki, Kenji

AU - Bressan, Alessandro

AU - Clementini, Gisella

AU - de Grijs, Richard

AU - Emerson, Jim

AU - Groenewegen, Martin A.T.

AU - Ivanov, Valentin D.

AU - Muraveva, Tatiana

AU - Nanni, Ambra

AU - Oliveira, Joana M.

AU - Ripepi, Vincenzo

AU - Sun, Ning Chen

AU - van Loon, Jacco Th

PY - 2018/8/21

Y1 - 2018/8/21

N2 - We recover the spatially resolved star formation history across the entire main body andWing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), using 14 deep tile images from the VISTA survey of the Magellanic Clouds (VMC) in the YJKs filters. The analysis is performed on 168 subregions of size 0.143 deg2 covering a total contiguous area of 23.57 deg2. We apply a colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) reconstruction method that returns the best-fitting star formation rate SFR(t), age-metallicity relation, distance and mean reddening, together with their confidence intervals, for each subregion. With respect to previous analyses, we use a far larger set of the VMC data, updated stellar models, and fit the two available CMDs (Y - Ks versus Ks and J - Ks versus Ks) independently. The results allow us to derive a more complete and more reliable picture of how the mean distances, extinction values, star formation rate, and metallicities vary across the SMC, and provide a better description of the populations that form its Bar and Wing. We conclude that the SMC has formed a total mass of (5.31 ± 0.05) × 108 M⊙ in stars over its lifetime. About two-thirds of this mass is expected to be still locked in stars and stellar remnants. 50 per cent of the mass was formed prior to an age of 6.3 Gyr, and 80 per cent was formed between 8 and 3.5 Gyr ago. We also illustrate the likely distribution of stellar ages and metallicities in different parts of the CMD, to aid the interpretation of data from future astrometric and spectroscopic surveys of the SMC.

AB - We recover the spatially resolved star formation history across the entire main body andWing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), using 14 deep tile images from the VISTA survey of the Magellanic Clouds (VMC) in the YJKs filters. The analysis is performed on 168 subregions of size 0.143 deg2 covering a total contiguous area of 23.57 deg2. We apply a colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) reconstruction method that returns the best-fitting star formation rate SFR(t), age-metallicity relation, distance and mean reddening, together with their confidence intervals, for each subregion. With respect to previous analyses, we use a far larger set of the VMC data, updated stellar models, and fit the two available CMDs (Y - Ks versus Ks and J - Ks versus Ks) independently. The results allow us to derive a more complete and more reliable picture of how the mean distances, extinction values, star formation rate, and metallicities vary across the SMC, and provide a better description of the populations that form its Bar and Wing. We conclude that the SMC has formed a total mass of (5.31 ± 0.05) × 108 M⊙ in stars over its lifetime. About two-thirds of this mass is expected to be still locked in stars and stellar remnants. 50 per cent of the mass was formed prior to an age of 6.3 Gyr, and 80 per cent was formed between 8 and 3.5 Gyr ago. We also illustrate the likely distribution of stellar ages and metallicities in different parts of the CMD, to aid the interpretation of data from future astrometric and spectroscopic surveys of the SMC.

KW - Galaxies: evolution

KW - Galaxies: stellar content

KW - Hertzsprung-Russell and colour-magnitude diagrams

KW - Magellanic Clouds

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85050806624&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/mnras/sty1279

DO - 10.1093/mnras/sty1279

M3 - Article

VL - 478

SP - 5017

EP - 5036

JO - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

JF - Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

SN - 0035-8711

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ER -